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  Early settlements Paleolithic, then Mesolithic, they began agriculture. Malaysia had ppl living here as far back as 35 000 bc They lived in caves n shit They hunted Moving on they bcame mo advanced, some 11000 years ago, Mesolithic era Developed some tech, living in bigger groups, next neo lithic, 5000 years ago, like mud pots N finally the metal age, 2500 years ago, what is important for us is basic era and how many years apart for midterms AD 1  –   15 ppl started living in towns, don’t need The peninsula located between two superpowers, china and india Why important, land travel btwn these two superpowers for trade v long time, but if sea travel, v short, Malaysia here, important ports for biz for india and china. Most imp note: 14  –  16 th  century, somewhere around 1400 years ago, peninsula had imp affect on peninsula. S why then Buddhism and Hinduism main religion in malay peninsula then. Malacca a very imp port, ships began to travel from india and china for biz to Malacca port. Good port, no storms protected by Sumatra. And the south east asia, famous for spices, cinnamon and pepper stuff, was easily reachable for india and china from this port. They had traders as far as the middle east. Interested in spice. See the spice train. Most imp> cz of all the biz, Malacca became imp and powerful. Malacca empire. Ppl who controlled the spices are Indians and middle easterners, spices price spiked up. So Portuguese started exploring on their own. They wanted Malacca. So they they conquered Malacca. In 1511. The major legacy? Portuguese ruled for basically a 100 years. They constructed a fort, n they intermarried In 1641 AGAIN the Dutch came and started to sniff and kicked out the Portuguese. If go Malacca, u’ll see the Dutch Square. (who wer e later in turn kicked out by the Brits) greedy bastards the lot of them…    The Dutch had influence on Indonesia. Brits had most influence on Malaysia. WEEK 6 MIDTERM!!!!   Historically Singapore n malay were same, somebody brought it from johor to form Singapore Have two European countries fighting for supremacy in s east asia. But fighting not good for biz, so in 1824 they signed a treaty, the Anglo  –  Dutch treaty of 1824. Orange one is brit color, green is dutch. On the map on rewind. Before treaty both had similar culture language n so on. But after treaty segregated, ten different In all this area, Thailand only country not occupied n no foreign imposed influence. Phillipines was first Spanish then American occupancy VIP Btwn 1824  –  1874 Brits sta yed in Penang Malacca and Singapore didn’t take whole peninsula, why? They all were important port areas. But after 1874, when tin was discovered, very useful metal for those days. Three areas, Selangor n some other. Difficult to get tin though cz the chinese minors living in this area fought a lot, n so Perak, Selangor, sembilang, and phahang, so brits started to expand. By 1909 All u need to know is british expansion flag slide, no need remember conquering ppl man names The sultans only had power over malay customs n religion, after the brits introduced the Brit advisors. Need to know, SS, FMS, and UMS Penang, Malacca, Singapore, hav no sultans even then, they were under direct brit rule, had Govenor. Federated Malay States: FMS: reported to British Resident, Four states had advisors who reported to someone, a resident general in charge of them, who would report to someone in Singapore. Need to know? How many states in malay?  What independence day? (for exam) Those kinda general questions 16 th  April By 1911 the whole peninsula was taken over by the brits When the brits first arrived they didn’t rule directly, they did indirect rule, installing advisors to the Sultan. Penang Malacca and Singapore, were however under direct rule, other areas had generals n stuff. What u need to remember most is the ‘indirect rule part’  First recorded history of Chinese settling here were when princess came to marry sultan, n brought her followers. Research: Baba Nyonya TEXT BOOK Indians arrived much earlier, as much as 2000 years ago. Traders Indian, the first influx settled here. Basically: Brits here 1824, they controlled three places, but later discovered that Selangor discovered TIN. TIN miners were basically Chinese if not all. Because of all the Chinese with different dialects fighting, and the Brits wanting control of the TIN too, difficult to do business. Thus, by the 20 th  Century, by 1900, the brits AND Chinese controlled Tin mines. BOTH Brits imported Southern Chinese (shorter than Northern Chinese ppl, southern eat rice whereas northerners eat wheat, southerners darker northerners fair) when they got control of the mines Most malay chinese here, mostly be 3 rd  to 4 th  generation chinese, during this TIN industry time. Baba Nyonya ppl are different!!! FYI, Mandarin main language of Chinese but many diff dialects Most Chinese who came here basically were men, few women. Of course, not all immigrants worked in Tin mines, some were teachers (not to let culture n stuff die) doctors n ppl. The 20 th  century was also imp cz discovered rubber, the Brits opened lots of land, huge rubber plantations opened. Lots of Tamils came to open rubber plantations.  Be aware that though Indians came, Indians from all area / dialects from India came (Tamils among them) Main cities / towns were basically Tin mining areas. Important: Brits built (1883  –  1903) railway connecting lots of towns, imp towns (with all rubber plantations along this line too) Penang and Singapore (Malacca no longer v imp then) connecting Taiping and such. Penang on West cost, important most and most richest and most developed cities on West coast cz developed by the Brits. Whereas East Cost not as developed and not as populated. Brits had a stand that ordinary Malays must be protected, not given any modern education and let them  just be. Exist island koh old style just exist. Paternalistic attitude. The Malays worked as farmers and fishermen. As a result, Plural Society: Malay, Chinese, Indians, Europeans. They lived separately, the only time they interact was during Market, else when they had own culture n shit. 18 th  April 18, 2014 Huntley videos about Malayan life back then film 6498 (rural areas, urban trade and commercial areas yada yada) Back then had Chinese and Tamil schools, n mission schools (run by missionaries) VIOLENT INTERLUDE: V IMP PART Basically, 1940 onwards WWII, the Japanese occupied Japanese aircraft also attacked Singapore itself One group arrived many on bicycle. Within a few weeks Japs came n conquered Singapore as well, n kicked Brits out as well. Controlled for 4-5 years. Brutal years this occupancy. Especially for the Chinese, cz they were in war with the Chinese too. Japs surrendered in 45 to Allies, 45  –  57 ppl started asking for independence
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