Notes on Socialism Rise

Notes on Socialism Rise
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  The history of socialism has its srcins in the French Revolution of 1789Robert Owen (1771 - 1858)he was british, In 1825 he arived in AmericaCreated first free school in U.SHe took care of his workers and their life style and their childern also.Harmony, Indiana, a village where idea of socialism was practisedPeople were attracted here in 1827,1828 to discuss ideas.Lot of thinkers hereFriedrich Engels (1820 - 1895)Karl Marx his disiple (1818 - 1883) (both Germans)Communist ManefestoBy the end of 19th century theory was around since last 50 years, and its not becoming true and implementedOtto von Bismarck (1st chancellor of germany 1871-1890) outlawed all socialist activitiesEduard Bernstein socialist activistVladimir Lenin (exiled in Siberai) (1870-1924), He red karl and documents of his brotherLenin said that you have to trust on professional workers not on workers,In 1900 he left for europe Germany Munich started underground newspaper to start revolution in Russia.Russian revolution (Bolshevik revolution)- 1917 after this was civil warPreasts rich peasents and specially Nicholas II of Russia along with family killed,Many died, bank churches died, all replaced by bolshevik, Lenin broke ties with all other socilists of world and so came communismFamine,Samuel Gompers (1850 - 1924) in U.S also followed by workers, he was marxist, he said that workers should be uplifted by workers.He was kind of save human life, using strikes and bycots rather then being political, founded American fedration of labors.Socialist party in U.S, Okolohoma favouring party, but WWI turned things around, many socialists were arrestedsocialist party faded around WWI time, after that some farmers went to canadasocialism in Canada is american importIn 1930 CCF emerged, co-operative common wealth,1944 won provincial electionFirst govt in North America, CCF ideas were adopted by liberal govt of CanadaLenin created first world socialist state.Union of Soviet Socialists RepublicAll over europe socialists transformed to Nationalist socialismSocialist took over eastern europe and North KoreaMao believed to re-educate people, recreate them, cut them from pastMao created Red gaurd, youth for his ideas to rebel agaisnt any1For decade China followed RussiaIn Great leap forward, productivity increase but low qualityEven Steel produced was worthlessThen to produce wheet 30 to 40 million chinese peasents dieIn west Democratic socialism rose as a replace to CommunismIn Britian Labour party for example (started as labour union, then attracted socialist)In 1918 party adopted socialismClement Attlee (1883 - 1967) - labour party leader in 1935 prime minister of U.K   from 1945 - 1951He wanted large industry nationalised and small industry in private hand for small timeHe nationalised much of country industry, coal, rail, steel, gas, pension created, medical insuranceMany of jews settlements were socialist in Palestine.kibbutz : everything owned by community, no salary needed,It is collective responsibilty to raise childern, free member of childern society no parents specificThe first kibbutz, established in 1909 in Israel Degania AlefAll intial members of Israel's cabinet were kibbutz membersJulius Nyerere president of tanzania adopted socialism,in africa (Ujama thw word for socialism)Ujama villages will buid socialism at village level, Julius visited china to move away from west, China took interest in Tanzania develpmnt.Tanzania schools began to reshape, students learned trade. Julius reallocated villages.Deng Xiaoping (1978), china leader reshaped socialism, He was Mao's closet advisroIn Deng time people started to own plots dividing their collective land and keeping profit to themselvesPeople decided that if any1 arrested let other support his childern.Deng knew this he said don't stop let it work lets see how it comes out to beAnd harvestors were doubling and income was increasing, He said lets move like thisAny them every single commune was de-collectivesePolitical reforms were not brought, Dend crushed peopleDeng and Mikhail Gorbachev were two reformist to get rid of socialismGorbachev also wanted to reform political system.March 1989, first free parliament election in Russia, and new faces suddenly became MPsPoland : also new electionsIn August 1991 military coup put Gorbachev in arrest, thousands citizens came to streetBoris Yeltsin (1991-1999) issued decree outlawed communist partyThen Russian states declared independant,Is collapse of communism really end of socialismIn 1990z Tony made clear that we don't belive in socialism.Margaret Thatcher : against socialism in England belonged to conservatives , against labour1985Joseph Stalin (1878 - 1953)
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