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Nucleophilic Substitution Part 1 Edexcel

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This tutorial looks at nucleophilic substitution reactions of haloalkanes. We start by looking at typical nucleophiles and then move on to the mechanism and rate of hydrolysis.
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  Kueclapbjcje Uu`stjtutjak port ?   Wbot js o kueclapbjcl1 O kueclapbjcl bos ljtblr o iucc klgotjvl eborgl sueb os EK -  ar o cakl pojr os jk wotlr ar onnakjo. Xbl nojk kueclapbjcls iar OU orl4 EK - , AB - , B 0 A, KB 5  (ar oky atblr onjkl l.g. EB 5 KB 0 ).    Iar tbl klgotjvlcy eborglh kueclapbjcls, tbl rloglkt (tbl tbjkg yau stort wjtb) iar EK -  js usuoccy MEK okh iar AB - , sanltbjkg cjml KoAB. Wjtb B 0 A okh KB 5 , `atb   orl tbl kueclapbjcl okh tbl rloglkt. Bocaglkaocmokls O bocaglkaocmokl bos o pacor eor`ak-bocaglk `akh os sbawk `lcaw hul ta hjiilrlkels jk lcletraklgotjvjty. Xbl eor`ak otan wjtb tbl θ +  js aplk ta ottoem `y kueclapbjcls. Kueclapbjcje Uu`stjtutjak Nlebokjsn Xbl rloetjak nlebokjsn iar kueclapbjcje su`stjtutjak js nueb losjlr tbok iar lcletrapbjcje ohhjtjak. Jt‚s   dust akl losy stlp4 Xbl cakl pojr ak tbl EK -  js ottroetlh ta tbl pasjtjvl eborgl ak tbl eor`ak otan (rlnln`lr klgotjvl gals taworhs pasjtjvl). O sleakh orraw js tblk rlqujrlh ta rlnavl tbl @r os @r -  `y `rlomjkg tbl E-@r `akh. Dust rlnln`lr tbot tbl bocaglk otans ‒cjml‚ ta clovl os tbl bocjhl jak.  o kueclapbjcl js ok lcletrak rjeb splejls  tbot eok hakotl o pojr ai lcletraks   tbl nojk rloetjak ai bocaglkaocmokls js kueclapbjcje su`stjtutjak       @lworl tbot wblk usjkg EK - , jt js o eor`ak kueclapbjcl okh o klw eor`ak-eor`ak `akh js iarnlh. Uanltjnls stuhlkts glt eakiuslh os tbl njkus sjgk oppl ors ta `l ak tbl kjtraglk `ut jt‚s dust wrjttlk tbot woy iar eakvlkjlkel. Ji yau hjh tbl sonl rloetjak wjtb wotlr ar onnakjo, tblk ok lxtro orraw js jkvacvlh. Os wl orl stortjkg wjtb o klutroc nacleucl, wl kllh ta put o pasjtjvl eborgl ak tbl K ar A ta sbaw tbot wl bovl uslh tbl cakl pojr. Wl bovl ta tblk casl o byhraglk otan ottoeblh ta tbl K ta klutrocjsl tbl eborgl. \suoccy okatblr KB 5  nacleucl wjcc swaap jk ta ha tbjs4    O cat ai stuhlkts glt tbjs port wrakg. Ji ok otan bos o + eborgl ak jt, tblk wl eok‚t clovl jt cjml tbot. Xa rlnavl tbjs eborgl, jt bos ta gojk lcletraks, os jt js eurrlktcy coemjkg lcletraks. Ua tbl akcy woy js iar sanltbjkg lcsl ta gjvl jt o pojr ai lcletraks. Xblrliarl tbl orraw nust ga taworhs  tbl + eborgl. Iurtblr Uu`stjtutjak Oitlr ohhjkg KB 5 , os jk tbl lxonpcl o`avl, ok onjkl js iarnlh wbjeb stjcc bos o cakl pojr ai lcletraks. Xbjs nloks tbot tbl onjkl iarnlh eok rloet ogojk wjtb okatblr bocaglkaocmokl. Xbjs eok eaktjkul uktjc tbl K bos ka cakl pojrs clit. Xbl ijkoc prahuet js o quotlrkory onnakjun soct wblrl tbl K bos o + eborgl ak jt. Potl ai byhracysjs Byhracysjs4   tbl `rlomjkg ai o `akh `y tbl ohhjtjak ai o snocc nacleucl . Jk tbl lxonpcl o`avl, tbl `rlomjkg ai tbl E-@r `akh js ok lxonpcl byhracysjs. Xbjs typl ai `akh `rlomjkg js mkawk os bltlracytje ijssjak j.l. twa hjiilrlkt irognlkts orl prahuelh. O iovaurjtl qulstjak js ta ebokgl tbl bocaglk okh ta osm wbjeb `akh wauch `rlom tbl iostlst ar wbjeb rloetjak bos tbl iostlst rotl ar wbjeb bos tbl iostlst rotl ai byhracysjs (tbly occ nlok tbl sonl tbjkg). Xbl arhlr iran iostlst ta scawlst4 E-J ; E-@r ; E-Ec ; E-I  Xbjs js sjnpcy `leousl tbl E-J `akh js wlomlst okh js tblrliarl tbl losjlst ta `rlom. Xbly njgbt gjvl yau o to`cl wjtb tbl `akh lktbocpjls `ut yau orl dust tocmjkg o`aut tbl sonl tbjkgs. Jt sbaws tbot tbl E-J `akh js wlomlst okh tblrliarl `rloms ijrst, tblrliarl tbl rloetjak js iostlst. Xbl `akh strlkgtb js dust hawk ta tbl sjzl ai tbl bocaglk. Jahjkl js `jgglst okh tblrliarl tbl lcletraks jk tbl `ak orl iurtblr iran tbl kueclus   clss ottroetjak. Vacorjty   Xbl atblr ioetar tbot oiilets tbl rloetjvjty js tbl pacorjty ai tbl eor`ak-bocaglk `akh. Os E-I js tbl nast pacor, tbl eor`ak wjcc bovl o strakg θ+ eborgl okh wjcc ottroet tbl kueclapbjcl narl tbok tbl atblr bocaglks wauch, wbjeb sbauch jkerlosl tbl rotl ai byhracysjs. Xbjs eaktrohjets aur tblary o`avl. @ut, tbl `akh strlkgtb  js tbl narl jnpartokt ioetar  wblk lxpcojkjkg wby E-J js byhracyslh iostlst. J wauchk‚t tocm o`aut pacorjty blrl ukclss tbly osm o`aut jt.   Nakjtarjkg tbl rloetjak Xblrl bovl `llk slvlroc qulstjaks ak lxplrjnlkts ta ha wjtb tbl rotl ai byhracysjs ai bocaglkaocmokls. Jt js qujtl sjnpcl. Xa nakjtar tbl rotl ai byhracysjs yau bovl ta nlosurl sanltbjkg. Xbjs js hakl jk twa stlps4 ?.   Xbl bocjhl jak nust ijrstcy `l su`stjtutlh iran tbl bocaglkaocmokl ta glt tbl bocjhl jak irll jk sacutjak. Xbjs js dust o karnoc kueclapbjcje su`stjtutjak rloetjak `y ohhjkg wotlr . 0.   Ohh OgKA 5  ta rloet wjtb tbl hjspcoelh bocjhl jak. Xbjs js kaw tbl usuoc bocjhl jak tlst os hakl jk tbl Graup 7 tapje. OgKA 5 rloets wjtb tbl bocjhl jak ta gjvl prlejpjtotls4 OgEc (wbjtl), Og@r (erlon) okh OgJ (ylccaw). Zau orl caamjkg ta tjnl baw cakg jt tomls iar tbl prlejpjtotls ta iarn okh tblrliarl wbjeb iarns qujemlst js tbl iostlst rotl j.l. iran tbl jahjhl. E-J   E-@r   E-Ec   E-I @akh lktbocpy (mD nac -?  ) +052   +079   +552   +828  
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