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Nutritional Status. Morphology Reproduction Ecology Dissemination. Eukaryotes Non-Vascular Reproduce by Spores. Heterotrophs

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Morphology Reproduction Ecology Dissemination SEM of an unidentified fungus on the surface of a seed from Setaria faberii, a large grass, commonly called Giant Foxtail --www.itg.uiuc.edu/ exhibits/iotw/ /
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Morphology Reproduction Ecology Dissemination SEM of an unidentified fungus on the surface of a seed from Setaria faberii, a large grass, commonly called Giant Foxtail --www.itg.uiuc.edu/ exhibits/iotw/ / Eukaryotes Non-Vascular Reproduce by Spores Both Sexual & Asexual Spores Alternation of Generations Vegetative Body Microscopic Threads Called Hyphae Cell Walls Similar in Structure to Plants Differ in Chemical Composition Organelles & their Structures Differ from Plants More closely Related to Animals than Plants midamericalandrestore.com Heterotrophs Can t Make Their Own Food Digest then Ingest Lack of Chlorophyll Profoundly Affects Lifestyle Not Dependent on Light Can Occupy Dark Habitats Can Grow in any Direction Can Invade the Interior of Substrate with Absorptive Filaments midamericalandrestore.com Mycelium Filamentous Body with Many Cells Hypha Individual Branches of Mycelium Size Varies, Growth at Hyphae Tips Haustoria Feeding Organs Sclerotium Hard Masses of Mycelium Nutritional Status Saprophytes Recyclers in Nature Symbionts (Mutualists) Mycorrhizae Lichens Parasites answers.com 1 Reproduction Mainly by Spores Analogous to the Seed of Green Plants Successful Organisms Enormous Numbers of Spores Many Produce Asexual & Sexual Spores Sexual or Perfect State Referred to as Teleomorph Asexual or Imperfect Termed the Anamorph Spores can Remain Dormant Long Time Sporangium Sac or Container that Holds Spores Chlamydospore Thick-Walled Spore Formed from Hypha Cell Resting Structure for Long-Term Survival Zoospores: Spores with Flagella that Swim Most Fungi Can Reproduce Sexually Mating Types 1. Gametes (Cells) Unite Produce Zygote Zygospore, Ascospore, Basidiospore, Oospore 2. Gametes Fuse 3. Mycelium Unite Spores & Spore- Bearing Structures Sometimes Mycelium Identification Rust spores parasitized by the mycelium of the hyperparasite that grows appressed to the rust spores, coiling around them & forming numerous appressoria. Apsnet.org Monilia fructigena Pers. - Brown Fruit Rot, agroatlas.ru Where Do Fungi Live? Some on Plant Entire Lives except Spore Stage Some Part of Lives on Plants & Part on Dead Tissues of Same Host on Ground Soil Fungal Pathogens On Plants On Dead Tissues of Host As Saprophytes on Decaying OM Wide Host Range Can Survive in Soil many Years Need Host occasionally to Increase Populations Which Part of the Plant? Plant Surface with Haustoria Intercellularly with Haustoria Xylem Vessels [(a) Courtesy APS; (b) Courtesy Plant Pathology Department, Washington State University] apsnetorg 2 What Kind of Plant Material Obligate Fungi Need Living Cells Do They Require? Some Nonobligate Fungi never Contact Living Plant Cells What Kind of Environment Do They Require? Usually Presence of Water Spores Broader Ranges of Temp & Moisture Zoospores Require Free Water Production, Movement & Germination Impacts of Fungi Many Harmful to Humans & Animals Plant Diseases Rot & Contamination of Foods Can Destroy almost every Kind of Manufactured Good Many Useful to Humans Yeasts for Baking & Brewing Antibiotics & other Drugs Organic Acids Commercially Produced with Fungi Citric Acid Steroids & Hormones Certain Stinky Cheeses bio.miami.edu info.asapsupplier.com How Do Fungi Spread? Zoospores can Move Short Distances Most Fungi Rely on Chance Distribution Wind, Water, Birds, Insects, Animals, Humans In What Form Do They Spread? Usually as Spores Hyphae Fragments & Sclerotia by Wind, Water, etc. omafra.gov.on.ca 3 Active or Passive Spread? Almost always Passive Distance Carried Depends on Wind, Water, Insect Movement Some Forcibly Discharge Spores Fungi Classes Major Classes Based on Method of Producing Sexual Spores Puffing from Apothecia of Monilinia fructicola (brown rot of stone fruits). apsnet.org 1. Ascomycetes Sac or Cup Fungi, Spores Borne Internally in a Sac called Ascus 75% of all Fungi Most Fungi that Join with Algae to Form Lichens, Baker s Yeast, Penicillium chrysogenum Have Sexual & Asexual Stages Conidia Are Asexual Spores Called Anamorph or Imperfect Stage Sexual Spores Ascospores Called Teleomorph or Perfect Stage Sexual Fruiting Bodies Saclike Cleistothecium Perithecium Pseudothecium Apothecium apsnet.org, Courtesy R. Wick Sexual Stage Seldom Found in Nature Mostly Found as Mycelium, Conidia or Both If Water Present, Can Consume Almost Any Carbon Substrate Jet Fuel, Wall Paint Biggest Role in Recycling Dead Plant Material Symbiotic Association with Algae or Plants Symbioses with Arthropods Can Line Beetle Galleries Beetles Maintain Pure Culture of the Fungus Examples of Ascomycetes Aspergillus flavus Producer of Aflatoxin Fungal Both a Toxin & Most Potent Known Natural Carcinogen Cryphonectria parasitica Chestnut Blight Ophiostoma ulmi Candida albicans 4 Taphrina, Peach Leaf Curl Powdery Mildew Fungi Fusarium Verticillium Claviceps, Ergot of Rye Anthracnose Fungi Venturia inaequalis, Apple Scab Sooty Molds Black Spot of Roses Botrytis 2. Basiomycetes Spores Borne Externally on Club-Shaped Structure Called Basidium Club & Mushroom Fungi Usually Fleshy Saprophytes, Wood Decay or Pathogenic including Root & Stem Rots Most Evolutionary Advanced Fungi Usually no Asexual Spores botamynus.de Ectomycorrhizae Others Form Symbiotic Associations with Insects Shiitake Certain Hallucinogen Toxins Smuts Rusts Snow Mold of Turfgrasses Heart Rot of Trees 3. Zygomycetes Sexual Spores Thick-Walled Resting Zygospores Mostly Live in Soil or on Decaying Material Asexual Zygospores Borne on Stalks Sugar Molds Rhizopus Bread Molds & Soft Rots Endomycorrhizae clarku.edu 4. Oomycetes Formerly Classified as Fungi Cellulose Cell Wall Water Molds aka Aquatic Fungi Filamentous Absorb Food from Surrounding Water or Soil Most Saprophytes Some Cause Severe Diseases Late Blight of Potato Downy Mildew Sudden Oak Death Syndrome protist.i.hosei.ac.jp Fungal Disease Control Resistant Plants Destroy Infected Debris Destroy Volunteer Plants or Alternate Hosts Rotate Crops Chemical Sprays or Dusts Sterilize Soil Systemic Fungicides or Hot Water for Seeds Control Insect Vectors 5
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