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Occupational Stress Fractors That Contribute to Its Occurrence and Effective Management

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   A Report to the  WORKERS’ COMPENSATION AND REHABILITATIONCOMMISSION Western Australia Occupational Stress:Factors that Contribute to its Occurrence and EffectiveManagement Centre for Human Services GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY  Elizabeth Kendall, Ph.D.Patricia Murphy Veronica O’NeillSamantha Bursnall  August, 2000 Funded by Workers’ Compensation and Rehabilitation Commission      2000 by WorkCover Western Australia This work is copyright. Extracts from the report may be reproduced without  permission, provided that the source is acknowledged. Published August 2000 ISBN 0 7307 2693 2 Publications are available from the WorkCover Internet site: http://www.workcover.wa.gov.au WorkCover Western Australia 2 Bedbrook Place Shenton Park WA 6008 Telephone: (08) 9388 5555  ______________________________________________________________________________________ Occupational Stress: Causes and Management ModelsiCentre for Human Services, Griffith UniversityJuly, 2000 Acknowledgements The authors of this report would like to acknowledge the support and assistance of many people in the preparation and editing of the manuscript. In particular, thanks are due to Nicholas Buys, Ph.D., Jayne Clapton, Ph.D., Jennifer Hall, Jane Fowler, VickyMacDonald, Greg McQueen, Ronita Neal, Tina Sandell, and John Wright.The resources, consultation and encouragement provided by Diane Munrowd, DonnaHaney and Jemma Owen at WorkCover Western Australia are also gratefullyacknowledged.Finally, the financial support of the Western Australian Workers Compensation andRehabilitation Commission must be recognised as well as the opportunity they have provided to allow an investigation of work stress to be undertaken in their jurisdiction.  ______________________________________________________________________________________ Occupational Stress: Causes and Management ModelsiiCentre for Human Services, Griffith UniversityJuly, 2000 Table of Contents Project Overview __ _____________________________________________________ 1 1. Stress in the Workplace__ ______________________________________________ 3  1.1The Value of Work_  _______________________________________________41.2Definitions of Work Stress__  ________________________________________5 Acute Stress___________________________________________________________________7Post Traumatic Stress____________________________________________________________7Chronic Stress__________________________________________________________________8 1.3The Impact of Work Stress_  ________________________________________9 2. The Work Stress Process __ ____________________________________________ 14 3. Causative and Exacerbatory Factors __ __________________________________ 21  3.1Personal Vulnerability to Stress___  __________________________________21 Personality Factors_____________________________________________________________22 Negative Affectivity____________________________________________________________22Cognitive Distortions and Negative Thinking Patterns___________________________________24Psychological Hardiness_________________________________________________________25Coping Style__________________________________________________________________26Inadequate Personal or Environmental Resources______________________________________27Family-Work Conflict___________________________________________________________30 3.2Job Demands__  _________________________________________________30 Workload____________________________________________________________________31Time Pressure_________________________________________________________________32Performance Pressure___________________________________________________________33Unclear Work Roles____________________________________________________________35Conflict at Work_______________________________________________________________36The Emotional Demands of Work__________________________________________________38 3.3Organisational Climate_  __________________________________________39 Globalisation of the Economy_____________________________________________________39The Impact of Technology________________________________________________________41 3.4The Interaction Between Worker and Job__  ___________________________413.5Organisational Culture and Socialisation__  ____________________________463.6The Role of Perceptions and Appraisal___  _____________________________513.7Human Resource Management Practices__  ____________________________55 Devolution of Responsibility in Human Resource Management____________________________57Lack of Job Redesign Skills_______________________________________________________60Inadequate Performance Appraisal and Counselling Procedures____________________________61The Demise of Unionism and Employee Participation in Decision-Making___________________63Failure to Adhere to Occupational Health and Safety Legislation___________________________65
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