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Oceanus

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  Oceanus (/osiənəs/; Greek: ʊˈ ː Ὠ κεανός Ōkeanós,[2] pronounce [keanós]! as a i#ine $i%ure ɔː in c&assica& an'iui'), *e&ie#e *) '+e ancien' Greeks an o-ans 'o *e '+e i#ine personi$ica'ion o$ '+e .or& Ocean, an enor-ous ri#er encirc&in% '+e or&0'ric'&) speakin%, Oceanus as '+e ocean1s'rea- a' '+e ua'or in +ic+ $&oa'e '+e +a*i'a*&e +e-isp+ere (3κ3456ν7, oikou-ene![8] 9n Greek -)'+o&o%), '+is or&1ocean as personi$ie as ἰ a i'an, a son o$ ranus an Gaea 9n <e&&enis'ic an o-an -osaics, '+is i'an as o$'en epic'e as +a#in% '+e upper *o) o$ a -uscu&ar -an i'+ a &on% *ear an +orns (o$'en represen'e as '+e c&a s o$ a cra*! an '+e &o er *o) o$ a serpen' (c$ )p+on! On a $ra%-en'ar) arc+aic #esse& o$ circa =>? @A (@ri'is+ Buseu- CDECCC1CC!, a-on% '+e %os arri#in% a' '+e ein% o$ Fe&eus an '+e sea1n)-p+ +e'is, is a $is+1'ai&e Oceanus, i'+ a $is+ in one +an an a serpen' in '+e o'+er, %i$'s o$ *oun') an prop+ec) 9n o-an -osaics, suc+ as '+a' $ro- @aro +e -i%+' carr) a s'eerin%1oar an cra&e a s+ip0o-e sc+o&ars *e&ie#e '+a' Oceanus ori%ina&&) represen'e a&& *oies o$ sa&' a'er, inc&uin% '+e Bei'erranean 0ea an '+e '&an'ic Ocean, '+e ' o &ar%es' *oies kno n 'o '+e ancien' Greeks <o e#er, as %eo%rap+) *eca-e -ore accura'e, Oceanus ca-e 'o represen' '+e s'ran%er, -ore unkno n a'ers o$ '+e '&an'ic Ocean (a&so ca&&e '+e HOcean 0eaH!, +i&e '+e ne co-er o$ a &a'er %enera'ion, Foseion, ru&e o#er '+e Bei'erraneanGreek ei'iesseriesi'ansO&)-pians ua'ic ei'iesA+'+onic ei'iesB)cenaean ei'iesFersoni$ie concep'sO'+er ei'iesi'ans+e  e&#e i'ansOceanus an e'+)s,<)perion an +eia,Aoeus an F+oe*e,Aronus an +ea,Bne-os)ne, +e-is,Arius, 9ape'usA+i&ren o$ OceanusOceanis, Fo'a-oiA+i&ren o$ <)perion<e&ios, 0e&ene, osA+i&ren o$ AoeusIe&an'os, Ie'o, s'eria0ons o$ 9ape'us '&as, Fro-e'+eus,pi-e'+eus, Benoe'ius0ons o$ Arius s'raeus, Fa&&as, Ferses# ' eOceanusJ consor' is +is sis'er e'+)s, an $ro- '+eir union ca-e '+e ocean n)-p+s, a&so kno n as '+e '+ree1'+ousan Oceanis, an a&& '+e ri#ers o$ '+e or&, $oun'ains, an &akes[K] Lro- Aronus, o$ '+e race o$ i'ans, '+e O&)-pian %os +a#e '+eir *ir'+, an <era -en'ions ' ice in 9&ia*ook M9N +er in'ene ourne) H'o '+e ens o$ '+e %enerous ear'+ on a #isi' 'o Oceanus, +ence '+e %os +a#e risen, an e'+)s our -o'+er +o *rou%+' -e up kin&) in '+eir o n +ouseH[=]9n -os' #aria'ions o$ '+e ar *e' een '+e i'ans an '+e O&)-pians, or i'ano-ac+), Oceanus,  a&on% i'+ Fro-e'+eus an +e-is, i no' 'ake '+e sie o$ +is $e&&o i'ans a%ains' '+e O&)-pians, *u' ins'ea i'+re $ro- '+e con$&ic' 9n -os' #aria'ions o$ '+is -)'+, Oceanus a&so re$use 'o sie i'+ Aronus in '+e &a''erJs re#o&' a%ains' '+eir $a'+er, ranus $'er '+e $irs' Pion)sus [Qa%reus] +a *een s&au%+'ere, La'+er Qeus  a''acke '+e -o'+er o$ '+e i'anes [Gaia '+e ar'+] i'+ a#en%in% *ran, an s+u' up '+e -urerers o$ +orne Pion)sus ['+e i'ans is-e-*ere '+e %o&in% Qa%reus] i'+in '+e %a'e o$ ar'arus [a$'er a &on% ar]: '+e 'rees *&aRe, '+e +air o$ su$$erin% Gaea (ar'+! as scorc+e i'+ +ea'    So Okeanos poure ri#ers o$ 'ears $ro- +is a'er) e)es, a &i*a'ion o$ supp&ian' pra)er +en Qeus c&ai-e +is ra'+ a''+e si%+' o$ '+e scorc+e ear'+; +e pi'ie +er, an is+e 'o as+ i'+ a'er '+e as+es o$ ruin an'+e $ier) ouns o$ '+e &an +en ain) Qeus co#ere '+e +o&e sk) i'+ c&ous an $&ooe a&& '+e ear'+ [in '+e Grea' Pe&u%e o$ Peuka&ion]TSonnus, Pion)siaca U C== $$[C]9n '+e 9&ia, '+e ric+ icono%rap+) o$ c+i&&esJ s+ie&, as $as+ione *) <ep+aes'us, is enc&ose, as '+e or& i'se&$ as *e&ie#e 'o *e, *) Oceanus:+en, runnin% roun '+e s+ie&1ri-, 'rip&e1p&),+e pic'ure a&& '+e -i%+' o$ '+e Ocean s'rea-.+en O)sseus an Ses'or a&k 'o%e'+er a&on% '+e s+ore o$ '+e sounin% sea (9&ia 9MC>2! '+e)aress '+eir pra)ers H'o '+e %rea' 0ea1%o +o %ir&es '+e or&H 9' is 'o Oceanus, no' 'o Foseion, '+a' '+eir '+ou%+'s are irec'e9n#oke in passin% *) poe's an $i%ure as '+e $a'+er o$ ri#ers an s'rea-s, an '+us '+e pro%eni'or o$ ri#er %os, Oceanus appears on&) once in -)'+, as a represen'a'i#e o$ '+e arc+aic or& '+a' <erac&es cons'an'&) '+rea'ene an *es'e[E] <erac&es $orce <e&ios 'o &en +i- +is %o&en *o &, in orer 'o cross '+e ie eVpanse o$ '+e Ocean on +is 'rip 'o '+e <esperies .+enOceanus 'osse '+e *o & a*ou', <erac&es '+rea'ene +i- an s'i&&e +is a#es +e ourne) o$ <erac&es in '+e sun1*o & upon Oceanus *eca-e a $a#ore '+e-e a-on% pain'ers o$ ''ic po''er)Oceanus appears in <e&&enic cos-o%rap+) as e&& as -)'+ Aar'o%rap+ers con'inue 'o represen' '+e encirc&in% eua'oria& s'rea- -uc+ as i' +a appeare on c+i&&esJ s+ie&[>]+ou%+ <eroo'us as skep'ica& a*ou' '+e p+)sica& eVis'ence o$ Oceanus, +e reec'e sno -e&' as a cause o$ '+e annua& $&oo o$ '+e Si&e ri#er; accorin% 'o +is 'rans&a'or an in'erpre'er, Ii#io Aa'u&&o 0'ecc+ini, +e &e$' unse''&e '+e ues'ion o$ an eua'oria& Si&e, since '+e %eo%rap+) o$ 0u*10a+aran $rica as unkno n 'o +i- po&&onius o$ +oes ca&&s '+e &o er Panu*e '+e Weras Okeanoio (Gu&$ or <orn o$ Oceanus! in  r%onau'ica (9N 2>2! ccion (Ocean! in '+e $our'+ cen'ur) Gau&is+ Ia'in o$ u$us #ienusJ, Ora -ari'i-a, as app&ie 'o %rea' &akes[D]@o'+ <o-er (O)sse), M99 C! an <esio (+eo%onia, #2K2 D=D! re$er 'o Okeanos Fo'a-os, '+eHOcean 0'rea-H,<eca'eus o$ *era ri'es '+a' '+e Oceanus o$ '+e <)per*oreans is nei'+er '+e rc'ic Ocean nor .es'ern Ocean, *u' '+e sea &oca'e 'o '+e nor'+ o$ '+e ancien' Greek or&, ca&&e H'+e -os' a-ira*&e o$ a&& seasH *) <eroo'us (&i* 9N >=!, ca&&e '+e Hi--ense seaH *) Fo-ponius Be&a (&i* 9 c CD! an *) Pion)sius Ferie%e'es (Or*is Pescrip'io, # CU=!, an +ic+ is na-e Bare -aus on -eie#a& %eo%rap+ic -aps ' '+e en o$ '+e Okeanos Fo'a-os, is '+e +o&) is&an o$ &*a (Ieuke, F)'+o Sisi, 9s&e o$ 0nakes!,sacre 'o '+e Fe&as%ian (an &a'er, Greek! po&&o, %ree'in% '+e sun risin% in '+e eas' <eca'eus o$   *era re$ers 'o po&&oJs is&an $ro- '+e re%ion o$ '+e <)per*oreans, in '+e Oceanus 9' as on Ieuke, in one #ersion o$ +is &e%en, '+a' '+e +ero c+i&&es, in a +i&&) 'u-u&us, as *urie ('o '+is a), one o$ '+e -ou'+s o$ '+e Panu*e is ca&&e A+i&ia! Ie'o, '+e <)per*orean %oess, a$'er ninea)s an nine ni%+'s o$ &a*our on '+e is&an o$ Pe&os (Fe&as%ian $or +i&&, re&a'e 'o 'e&&! H%a#e *ir'+ 'o '+e %rea' %o o$ '+e an'iue &i%+'H (Fseuo1po&&oorus, @i*&io'+eca, 9 KC! O& o-anian $o&k son%s sin% o$ a +i'e -onas'er) on a +i'e is&an i'+ nine pries's, nine sin%ers, nine a&'ars, on apar' o$ '+e @&ack 0ea kno n as '+e .+i'e 0ea[C?]
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