Origin of the Unique Ventilatory Apparatus of Turtles How the Tortoise's Ribs Got Embedded in Its Shell

Origin of the Unique Ventilatory Apparatus of Turtles How the Tortoise's Ribs Got Embedded in Its Shell
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  pdfcrowd.comopen in browserPRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API Featured Research from universities, journals, and other org anizations Date:Source:Summary: November 7, 2014University of the WitwatersrandThrough the careful study of modern and early fossil tortoise,researchers now have a better understanding of how tortoises breatheand the evolutionary processes that helped shape their unique breathingapparatus and tortoise shell. Share This  Origin of the unique ventilatory apparatus of turtles: How the tortoise's ribs got embedded in its shell Save/Print :                  Share : Breaking News: Comet Flyby Effects On Martian Atmosphere Browse Tech News Company Updates & PressReleases. Check Out Today'sHeadlines.   Email to a friend   Facebook   Twitter    LinkedIn   Google+   Print this page  Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins Mobile :   iPhone    Android    Web Follow :   Facebook    Twitter     Google+ Subscribe :   RSS Feeds    Email Newsletters  HEALTHPHYSICAL/TECHENVIRONMENTSearch Enter keyword or phrase ... QUIRKYSOCIETY/EDUCATION  pdfcrowd.comopen in browserPRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API Credit: Emma R. Schachner  [Click to enlarge image] T Related Articles  A Computed Tomography rendering of a snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)showing the skeleton (white), lungs (blue), and abdominal muscles (red and pink)used to ventilate the lungs. Because turtles have locked their ribs up into theiconic turtle shell, they can no longer use their ribs to breathe as in most other animals and instead have developed a unique abdominal muscle based system. hrough the careful study of modern and early fossil tortoise,researchers now have a better understanding of how tortoises breatheand the evolutionary processes that helped shape their uniquebreathing apparatus and tortoise shell. The findings published in a paper,titled: Origin of the unique ventilatory apparatus of turtles, in the scientific journal, Nature Communications , on Friday, 7 November 2014, helpdetermine when and how the unique breathing apparatus of tortoises evolved. Lead author Dr Tyler Lyson of Wits University'sEvolutionary Studies Institute, the SmithsonianInstitution and the Denver Museum of Nature andScience said: Tortoises have a bizarre body plan andone of the more puzzling aspects to this body plan isthe fact that tortoises have locked their ribs up into theiconic tortoise shell. No other animal does this and thelikely reason is that ribs play such an important role inbreathing in most animals including mammals, birds, Related Topics Plants & AnimalsEarth & ClimateFossils & Ruins More Coverage Turtles Use Muscle Power toBreathe Due to Rigid Shell Nov. 7, 2014 — Turtle shells areunique in the animal kingdom. Inorder to be able to breathe in this inflexible casing,tortoises have a muscle sling which is attached tothe shell to ventilate the lung. ...    read more Related Stories Giant Aldabra Tortoises Debutat Bronx Zoo  Aug. 14, 2014 — Two giant Aldabratortoises (Geochelone gigantean) arenow grazing outside Zoo Center at the WildlifeConservation Society’s Bronx Zoo. Both tortoisesare males; one weighs approximately 400 pounds...    full story  Scientists Discover ThatTurtles Began Living in ShellsMuch Earlier Than OnceThought May 30, 2013 — Unique among Earth's creatures,turtles are the only animals to form a shell on theoutside of their bodies through a fusion of modifiedribs, vertebrae and shoulder girdle bones. The turtle...    full story  How Turtles Got Their Shells:Fossil of Extinct South AfricanReptile Provides Clues May 30, 2013 — Through carefulstudy of an ancient ancestor of modern turtles, researchers nowhave a clearer picture of how theturtles' most unusual shell came to be. The findingshelp to fill a 30- to ...    full story  Tortoise  Molecular biology  Beach  Fossil  Corn  Frogs and Reptiles  Evolutionary Biology  Evolution  Fossils   pdfcrowd.comopen in browserPRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API crocodilians, and lizards. Instead tortoises have developed a unique abdominalmuscular sling that wraps around their lungs andorgans to help them breathe. When and how this mechanism evolved has beenunknown. It seemed pretty clear that the tortoise shell and breathing mechanism evolved intandem, but which happened first? It's a bit of the chicken or the egg causalitydilemma, Lyson said. By studying the anatomy and thin sections (also known ashistology), Lyson and his colleagues have shown that the modern tortoise breathingapparatus was already in place in the earliest fossil tortoise, an animal known as Eunotosaurus africanus .This animal lived in South Africa 260 million years ago and shares many uniquefeatures with modern day tortoises, but lacked a shell. A recognisable tortoise shelldoes not appear for another 50 million years.Lyson said Eunotosaurus  bridges the morphological gap between the early reptilebody plan and the highly modified body plan of living tortoises, making it the Archaeopteryx of turtles. Named in 1892, Eunotosaurus  is one of the earliest tortoise ancestors and is knownfrom early rocks near Beaufort West, said Professor Bruce Rubidge, Director of theEvolutionary Studies Institute at Wits University and co-author of the paper. There are some 50 specimen of Eunotosaurus . The rocks of the Karoo are remarkablein the diversity of fossils of early tortoises they have produced. The fact that we find Eunotosaurus  at the base of the Karoo succession strongly suggest that there aremore ancestral forms of tortoises still to be discovered in the Karoo, Rubidge added.The study suggests that early in the evolution of the tortoise body plan a gradualincrease in body wall rigidity produced a division of function between the ribs andabdominal respiratory muscles. As the ribs broadened and stiffened the torso, theybecame less effective for breathing which caused the abdominal muscles to becomespecialised for breathing, which in turn freed up the ribs to eventually -- approximately50 million years later -- to become fully integrated into the characteristic tortoise shell.Lyson and his colleagues now plan to investigate reasons why the ribs of earlytortoises starting to broaden in the first place. Broadened ribs are the first step in thegeneral increase in body wall rigidity of early basal tortoises, which ultimately leads toboth the evolution of the tortoise shell and this unique way of breathing. We plan tostudy this key aspect to get a better understanding why the ribs started to broaden. Story Source: The above story is based on materials provided by University of the Witwatersrand . Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. More: Strange & Offbeat Stories Earliest Archaeological Evidence of PetTortoises Discovered July 12, 2010 — An archaeologist has discovered abone belonging to a late 19th-century tortoise fromStafford Castle, Staffordshire - believed to be theearliest archaeological evidence of a tortoise keptas a ...    full story  Madagascar's RadiatedTortoise Threatened WithExtinction  Apr. 5, 2010 — Madagascar'sradiated tortoise -- considered one of the mostbeautiful tortoise species -- is rapidly nearingextinction due to rampant hunting for its meat andthe illegal pet trade, according ...    full story    Plants & Animals  Arthropod  Scientists Discover That Turtles BeganLiving in Shells Much Earlier Than OnceThought  more related stories   A/C Came Standard on Armored Dinosaur Models   pdfcrowd.comopen in browserPRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API MLAAPAChicago University of the Witwatersrand. Origin of the unique ventilatory apparatus of turtles: How the tortoise's ribs got embedded in its shell. ScienceDaily.ScienceDaily, 7 November 2014.<>. Share This Journal Reference :1. Tyler R. Lyson, Emma R. Schachner, Jennifer Botha-Brink, Torsten M. Scheyer,Markus Lambertz, G. S. Bever, Bruce S. Rubidge, Kevin de Queiroz. Origin of theunique ventilatory apparatus of turtles . Nature Communications , 2014; 5: 5211DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6211 Cite This Page : More From ScienceDaily Earth & ClimateFossils & Ruins     Email to a friend   Facebook   Twitter    LinkedIn   Google+   Print this page   Genes Contribute to Behavior DifferencesBetween Fierce and Friendly Rats  New Zealand's Moa Were Exterminated by anExtremely Low-Density Human Population  Scientists Examine Mysterious Tar Mounds inthe West African Deep Ocean  The Tiger Beetle: Too Fast to See: BiologistLooks Into How the Speedy Predator PursuesPrey  Hungry Bats Compete for Prey by JammingSonar   Rare 2.5-Billion-Year-Old Rocks Reveal Hot Spotof Sulfur-Breathing Bacteria: Sulfur-DependentLife Forms Thrived in Oceans  Cockroach Cyborgs Use Microphones to Detect,Trace Sounds  Sustainability, Astrobiology Illuminate Future of Life in the Universe and Civilization on Earth  Mosquitofish Genitalia Change Rapidly Due toHuman Impacts  Tricky Take-Off Kept Pterodactyls Grounded  Genesis of Genitalia: We Have One. 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