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Panini Vyakaran Letters

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Sanskrit Letters
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  CHAPTER 1 TOPICS Scripts used to write SasktamThe Devangar scriptVowelsConsonantsConjunct consonantsPoint of articulation, and effort to pronounce the lettersExerciseScripts Used to Write Sasktam Sasktam is a phonetically precise language. Any script which is capable ofsymbolizing sounds precisely can be used to write Sasktam. The scripts of all the Aryanlanguages, which are evolutes of Sasktam, can be used as are the scripts of threeDravidian languages, Malayalam, Telugu, and Kannadam. But theTamil script cannot beused since the language lacks the degree of phonetic perfection required by Sasktam. Amodified Tamil script called grantha, is used by Tamil-speaking people to writeSasktam. With the addition of proper diacritical marks Roman script may also be used.Typically, if the native script of any language is used to write Sasktam, the writing iscalled transliteration. WIth the widespread use of computers, there is a need for a simplerway to write Sasktam with only the characters available in a normal key board. One ofthe prefered methods is to use lower case letters to represent short vowels andconsonants for which an equivalent letter is available. Upper case letters are reserved forlong vowel and consonant sounds which are not native to English. a  In this book we will usethe Devangar script. We will also employ the Roman script with necessary diacriticalmarks when Sasktam terms are used in an English sentence. a  www.advaita-vedanta.org/avhp/transliteration.html Introduction to Sasktam with Pinya Grammar (Chapter 1, page 1. August 17, 2004)  The Devangar script The Sasktam alphabet, like all languages has vowels and consonants. Each vowel orconsonant sound is defined both by the point in the vocal apparatus where the sound isarticulated and the effort needed to produce the sound represented by the letter. Inaddition, the time taken for utterance of the lettersvaries. Vowels The Sasktam term for the vowel is svara derived from the root rj (to shine). The ermmeans that which shines, that is, one that can stand independently. b  There are thirteen vowelsounds in Sasktam which includes nine simple vowels and four diphthongs. The ninevowels are often considered, from grammatical perspective to consist of five simplevowels. Four of these simple vowels have both short and long forms while the fifth doesnot have a long form. Since short and long vowels have the same point of articulation aswell as effort, their differnce being only in the duration for utterance, this compression to fivesimple vowels makes it easier to formulate euphonic combination rules (Chapter 2).In Sasktam each vowel is represented by two symbols -- one symbol representsthe vowel when it stands alone, and another when the same vowel is added to aconsonant (akara, called a syllable in English). For example, the word ' iti' is written as the symbol represents the vowel sound 'i' when it stands alone. The syllable 'ti' is writtenas the symbol   represents the same vowel sound 'i' when added to the consonant 't'Table 1.1 shows both the forms of each vowel in Devangar and Roman transliteration.The consonant 'p', is used in these examples. Note that a simple consonant (without afollowing vowel) is always written with a nether stroke, called virma under the symbol, asillustrated in . When the vowel 'a' follows a consonant, the nether stroke is removed. Forother vowels, in addition to removal of the nether stroke, a unique symbol representing thevowel is added to the consonant. Note that the symbol for the vowel ' is written beforethe consonant symbol. Of this set of thirteen vowels, and occur rarely, leaving eleven b  A Dictionary of Sankrit Grammar, Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar and J.M. Shukla, Oriental Institute Baroda(India) 1977, page 438 Introduction to Sasktam with Pinya Grammar (Chapter 1, page 2. August 17, 2004)  frequently used vowel sounds. Table 1.1. The Devangar script: Vowels Stand aloneTransliterationWith a consonantExampleTransliteration aiueaioau Consonants The Sasktam name for a consonant is vyaana which means that which manifestsitself in the presence of a vowel, incapable of standing alone.' c  There are 33 consonants, agroup of 25 divided in to five subgroups of five consonants each, a goup of five calledsemi-vowels and a group of three called sibilants. The rationale behind such divisions willbe clear when we analyze the point of articulation and effort necessary to pronounced thesounds represented by these symbols. c  A Dictionary of Sankrit Grammar, Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar and J.M. Shukla, Oriental Institute Baroda(India) 1977, page 373 Introduction to Sasktam with Pinya Grammar (Chapter 1, page 3. August 17, 2004)  As stated earlier, a consonant with no associated vowel sound is represented by theconsonant symbol written with a nether stroke. Since pronouncing a consonant soundunassociated with a vowel sound is difficult to hear clearly, the consonant is usually referredto in speech by adding the suffix akra Thus pakra means simple consonant,unassociated with any vowel sound represented by the symbol (p). The consonant (, however, is referred to as repha. Table 1.2. The Devangarscript: ConsonantsSome special symbols and Conjunct ConsonantsAnusvra, Virma, Visarga and Avagraha  When some consonants occur at the end of a word a special symbol is assigned tothem. One such consonant is makra, Under certain conditions, described under Sandhirules (Chapter 2) the final makra is called anusvra and is represented by the symbol This symbol goes on top of the preceding consonant as illustrated in the following sentence-- aya sarati Note in the devangar the end of a sentence is shown by another symbol, a vertical Introduction to Sasktam with Pinya Grammar (Chapter 1, page 4. August 17, 2004)
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