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PARAPHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY [The ParaPrincipia]

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It is a common error to equate paraphysics with parapsychology since they are entirely different, although related, disciplines. Paraphysics is concerned with natural phenomena that physics does not normally cover in its day to day business and this
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  P  ARAPHYSICAL P RINCIPLES OF  N  ATURAL P HILOSOPHY    [The ParaPrincipia]  James E. Beichler Copyright ©1999, 2013  All rights reserved Preface  This book was srcinally written as a Ph.D. dissertation for the Union Institute and University in 1999. The present publication follows the dissertation exactly except for a few grammatical, spelling and graphics corrections. It is published for the first time in e-book format because the specific physical theory of reality that was outlined in the srcinal dissertation was not completed in detail until recently. Although this book is a bit dated, such that advances in physics and cosmology since 1999 have not been included, the information in the book is still perfectly valid. The completed theory appears in a companion ebook with the title Four Pillars of Wisdom  . A great deal more background material is in preparation for publication while a more comprehensive look at the day to day advances in the theoretical model over the last decade can be found on my webpage at neurocosmology.net.  The first chapter of this book gives a philosophical and historical overview of paraphysics and defines the term.  The second chapter discusses the physical characteristics and properties of psi, the functional mechanism normally associated with paranormal phenomena. Chapter three gives a history of past attempts to develop paraphysics as well as specific physical theories of psi. The next chapter, four, discusses modern physics and more recent attempts to develop theories of everything (TOEs) before a new theory of the single field (SOFT) is introduced. The single field theory presented is essentially based upon a five-dimenional Clifford-Einstein-Kaluza space-time continuum that has been quantized. Although the classical notion of a continuous field forms the basis of this theory, neither the present theory of relativity nor the present quantum theory is being abandoned. This theory merges relativity and the quantum together as equal partners in a single theory. Both relativity theory and the quantum theory have been spectacularly successful and all of their past successes must be incorporated into any new comprehensive theory of reality rather than be abandoned. So any attempted unification must merge them together rather than allowing one to consume and replace the other as other scientists have attempted.  After discussing the physics of the single field in the fourth chapter, psi phenomena are briefly outlined within the context of the single field theory in the fifth chapter. Psi phenomena emerge naturally from the geometrical  characteristics and requirements of the single field structure. In fact, if they did not already exist they would have been predicted by the single field theoretical model. The fifth chapter is followed by a conclusion which briefly explains how the single field theory could be used to ‘solve the universe.’ And finally, a lengthy bibliography worthy of a doctoral dissertation appears at the end of the book. This book is purposely as comprehensive an expositon of the complete field of paraphysics as possible and in this respect it is like no other book in the field. Readers of this book, both professional and non-professional, need to develop good sense of the science of paraphysics and the scientific possibilities it raises to completely understand the advancements of science in general that will come in the next several decades. I would like to thank the members of my doctoral committee for their encouragement, suggestions and criticisms in the srcinal preparation of the dissertation. My doctoral committee consisted of Professors Kevin Sharp and Jose Cedillos of the Union Institute, Doctors Harold Puthoff and Samuel Stansfield who acted as non-faculty experts in the field of theoretical physics, and Doctors Pat Madden-Sullivan and Greg Summers who were peer reviewers. Special thanks go to Kevin Sharp who acted as my core faculty advisor. Without their help and support, this book  would not have been possible given the controversial nature of the subject and the academic prejudice against all such research, whether theoretical or experimental. Ph.D., Memorial Day, 2013. ** A Note: E-books have a very small character set and do not recognize Greek letters in text. So, all Greek letters that represent physical quantities in the text have been replaced by their English names. I regret the inconvenience and apologize if any have been missed. ** Introduction  The word ‘paraphysics’ has never been precisely defined. To establish paraphysics as a true science, the word is first defined and its scope and limits identified. The natural phenomena that are studied in paraphysics, psi phenomena, are distinguished by their common physical properties. The historical roots of paraphysics are also discussed. Paraphysics can be defined, represented by a specific body of natural phenomena and it has a historical basis. Therefore, paraphysics is a distinguishable science. It only needs a theoretical foundation. Rather than using a quantum approach, a new theory of physical reality can be based upon a field theoretical point of view. This approach dispels philosophical questions regarding the continuity/discrete debate and the wave/particle paradox. Starting from a basic Einstein-Kaluza geometrical structure and assuming a real fifth dimension, a comprehensive and complete theory emerges. The four forces of nature are unified, as are the quantum and relativity. Life, mind, consciousness and psi emerge as natural consequences of the physics. The scientific concept of consciousness, ambiguous at best, has become an increasingly important factor in modern physics. No one has ever defined consciousness in an acceptable manner let alone develop a workable theory of consciousness while no viable physical theories of life and mind are even being considered even though they are prerequisites of consciousness. In the five-dimension al model, life, mind and consciousness are explained as increasingly complex ‘entanglements’ or patterns of density variation within the single unified field. Psi is intimately connected to consciousness, giving the science of paranormal phenomena a theoretical basis in the physics of hyperspace. Psi results from different modes of consciousness interacting non-locally via the fifth dimension.  Several distinct areas of future research are suggested which will lead to falsification of the theory. A new theory of the atomic nucleus is clearly indicated, as is a simple theory of the predominant spiral shape of galaxies. A quantifiable theory of life is also suggested. And finally, this model strongly implies a direct correspondence between emotional states and psi phenomena that should render the existence of psi verifiable. CHAPTER 1 It’s all in the word!    And that word is paraphysics. Paraphysics is a new science, but the word is older. Science has not been sufficiently ready for its emergence until now.  The logical necessity of paraphysics Paraphysics can never be established as a legitimate branch of science until it is properly defined. Its definition must be precise enough to establish the scope of paraphysics as well as distinguish it from its closest relatives, physics and parapsychology. Since it deals with psi, a rather controversial subject in its own right, the precision of the definition is all the more important. The scope and methods of paraphysics must be firmly established independent of psi so scientists will accept the legitimacy of paraphysics in the absence of absolute proof that psi exists. This will not be difficult since paraphysics does not depend on psi alone, nor is it dependent on any one theory of psi, although a successful physical theory of psi would greatly enhance the acceptance and further development of the science of paraphysics.  Any scientific understanding of paraphysics not only requires a valid definition of paraphysics, but also a comprehensive development of what constitutes normal physics. Within this context, anyone with so much as a rudimentary knowledge of physics would first define physics by listing the fields that it contains, such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum theory and relativity. While this definition of physics is far from complete, it does at least indicate the central idea behind physics that allows the development of a simplified notion of paraphysics. Paraphysics could thus be deemed the field of physics describing phenomena which are not dealt with in the aforementioned fields of normal physics. While this definition is understandable at a rudimentary level, it is neither sufficient nor adequate for any real understanding of paraphysics. In this regard, defining paraphysics is a far more serious problem than might be thought at first. It is fraught with academic danger and controversy. On the one hand, normal physics represents a respectable and well-defined academic discipline, so anything paraphysical, beyond the norm for everyday physics, could be classified as paraphysics. This is the manner in which most people presently regard paraphysics. But this view is grossly inaccurate since paraphysics is not a dumping ground for those phenomena, natural or otherwise, which physics cannot explain. For example, Professor Tenti of the University of Toronto has recently placed a short web page on the Internet. He defines paraphysics as the physics of natural phenomena beyond the scope of normal physics, but he illustrates paraphysics with science fiction phenomena that have no reality in the world of nature. On the other hand, physics means ‘nature,’ so physics must include anything and everything, which is natural, and thus includes all natural phenomena. If paraphysics is to be considered a branch of physics, it must include phenomena that are both natural and paranormal which seems to be a contradiction in terms. This definition introduces a potential logical  contradiction and begs the question of definition since the word paranormal has itself been given no meaningful definition. Paraphysics must be regarded as either a branch of physics or an extension of physics; it must be ‘of physics’ yet ‘beyond’ physics. The difficulty defining paraphysics is further complicated by the fact that p hysics progresses and changes as time passes, consuming new ideas and areas of knowledge. Normal physics is thus undergoing a constant change.  As the scope of physics expands into the future, what is beyond physics today may not be beyond the physics of tomorrow. However, the basic fundamental tenets of physics remain constant against this changing historical background of knowledge, so paraphysics must ultimately be defined with respect to the basic, unchanging, underlying concepts upon which physics is ba sed rather than be regarded as an extension of physics ‘beyond’ its present knowledge base. Since some factors remain the same, consistent throughout the history of physics in spite of the progressive nature of science, founding paraphysics upon fundamental unchanging tenets proves to be the only valid method of distinguishing between physics and paraphysics, or normal and paranormal physics, while remaining within the realm of natural phenomena.  These considerations raise the question of whether paraphysics is a separate discipline or a branch of physics. But it must be assumed that paraphysics is a sub field of physics because physics covers all naturally occurring phenomena which includes the paranormal as well as the normal. This potential contradiction and its solution have a precedent in the mathematical research of Bernhard Riemann. Before he rethought geometry, the universe was thought to be either infinite and unbounded or finite and bounded. But Riemann developed a geometric model in  which the universe could be finite yet unbounded, a completely new viewpoint that circumvented the older infinite  versus finite argument. As in normal physics, paraphysics deals with the nature of physical reality although it goes beyond the notion of ‘matter in motion’ as the fundamental quantity that is used to explain natural phenomena in normal physics. Ideas and concepts such as life, thought, mind, and consciousness are beyond the scope of normal physics yet they are well-established norms in science whose existence would never be questioned. Since physics does not normally include explanations of these concepts, physics cannot be as all inclusive of nature and natural phenomena as many would believe. Thus, there are already precedents for paraphysics to maneuver within the plenum of natural phenomena outside of the direct realm of physics.  These concepts do not seem to fit the physics model of ‘matter in motion,’ so they may well be paraphysical in nature. Physics may or may not break these down, reduce them to a common physical quantity for the purpose of explanation at some unspecified future date, but even if it does their nature will probably remain unique enough, different from the other quantities defined and measured in physics, that they will be ‘beyond’ prese ntly accepted norms in physics as well as future extensions of those norms. So, although the scope of physics is wide and comprehensive within nature, it is not complete to all ‘that is in nature’ or all ‘that is possible.’ The need for paraphysics thus be comes apparent beyond its simple definition as ‘the physics of psi’ or ‘the physics of paran ormal phenomena.’   The concepts of life, thought, mind and consciousness are normally dealt with in other academic disciplines such as the life sciences and psychology, but these sciences are also incomplete in their understanding of these concepts.  The paranormal concept of psi, a general term describing the quantity which acts in both extrasensory perceptions (ESP) and psychokinetic (PK) phenomena, is intimately bound to these quantities and thus lies outside of normal physics. Psi also lies outside the scope of the life sciences and psychology, so the new academic field of parapsychology was developed six decades ago to deal with the mental aspects of psi. By so introducing a new science to deal with the psychological aspects of psi, it has become necessary to distinguish between the mental and physical aspects of psi and thus differentiate between parapsychology and paraphysics.   As science approaches a complete realization of the most fundamental aspects of reality, in so far as such a realization is even possible, it may well be found that there is no difference between paraphysics and parapsychology, just as there may be no real difference between either mind and matter or consciousness and physical reality in the final analysis. But at this point in the evolution of science there is no direct evidence that either consciousness and physical reality or mind and matter are at their most fundamental level the same thing. There are only suspicions. So, the difference between paraphysics and parapsychology must stand, at least until scientific evidence indicates otherwise. It is quite possible that drawing a distinction between what is purely paraphysical and what is purely parapsychological may actually aid in the search for a consistent and accurate definition of mind and consciousness as  well as matter and physical reality. There have been many cases in science where concepts have been defined as much by ‘what they are not’ as by ‘what they are.’ Deciding what is purely physical about psi may even help science to find the limits of consciousness and thus define consciousness. The definition of paraphysics as an independent field of science must therefore be deemed an important step in the evolution of science. Within our normal worldview, as defined by the fundamental bases of classical physics, relativity and quantum mechanics, all of nature is defined in the terms of matter, motion, or matter in motion. So any possibility that there is a more fundamental reality underlying these concepts implies a paraphysical explanation which goes ‘beyond’ the common concept of ‘matter in motion’ to establish paraphysics within the science of physics. Physics in perspective  The use and abuse of ‘paraphysics’  Defining moments  The physics of other worlds CHAPTER 2 Strange facts in search of a theory In his presidential address before the Society for Psychical Research in 1972, C.W.K. Mundle characterized parapsychology in this manner. The srcinal quotation stated that psychology is a theory in search of facts while parapsychology is a set of facts in search of a theory. Perhaps it is time  for science to realize that these two fields complement each other and the science of mind will remain incomplete until they are unified. A complete view of the world will only evolve when science accepts the fact that paraphysics and the science of the mind supplement each other.  The definitive psi
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