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Pathology of the Skin

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Kodil skripsi patologi kulit
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  Pathology of the SkinSkin is the only organ system where gross pathology is also the clinical signs of disease. Unfortunately, most skin lesions are not specific for a disease. Nearly all skin lesions are inflammatory (dermatitis).Many skin diseases will possess an array of gross lesions as they progress through stages. Biopsies from multiple areas will result in multiple lesions.istopathology is key and a !iopsy should always !e done. n addition to this you will also use signalment, history, location of lesions, seasonality, presence or a!sence of pruritis and other tests to diagnose. Disease of the Epidermis # most inflammation directed here srcinates in the B$ of the dermis (why we call it dermatitis) Name%haracteristics%ausePredominant Species PUSTULAR DERMATITIS Pustules are aggregates of neutrophils within the epidermis, &isi!le grossly (white to yellow), short li&ed and rupture lea&ing a crust%rust is a sca! resulting from a dried up accumulation of keratin, inflammatory cells, serum and !acteriaSuperficial !acterial infectionPustules in the keratin layerStaphylococcus'olliculitisPustules o&er hair follicles nfection with !acteria, fungi, mitesPemphigus foliaceus%ells separate from each other then detach and float in the  pustule (acanthocytes or acantholytic cells) then turn nti!ody directed against intercellular !ridges of the keratinocytes  into a crust BULLOUS AND VESICULAR DERMATITIS $esicles are fluid filled ca&ities less than *mm in diameter !ull are greater than *mm !oth structures are shortli&ed and turn into crustSpongiosus+dema !etween keratinocytes (intercellular) Intrace!ar edema $esicles form when edema is se&ere enough that keratinocytes are lost or displacedydropic degeneration+dema within the !asal epiderdmal cells causes depigmentation of the skinutoimmune d, lupus erythematosis and dermatomyositis, drug reactionsBallooning degeneration ntracellular edema within superficial keratinocytes$iral skin diseases (po- &irus, foot and mouth, &esicular stomatitis, &esicular e-anthema, swine &esicular disease)Pemphigus &ulgarisSupra!asilar &esicle containing acantholytic cells skin and oral ca&ity! directed against keratinocyteBullous pemphigoidSu!epidermal &esicle skin and oral ca&ity! against the !asement mem!rane NECROTI IN# DERMATITIS  Necrosis of epidermal cells leads to ulceration of the skin macule is a flat discolored area of the skin, papule is slightly raised area !oth are usually red (erythema)  e&entually progress to a crust  phase+rythema multiformeNecrosis of single keratinocytes throughout epidermisd&erse drug reaction in association with systemic infection or neoplasia (immune mediated)Small animalso-ic epidermal necrolysisMore se&ere form, full thickness epidermal necrosisd&erse drug reaction in association with systemic infection or neoplasia (immune mediated)Small animalsBurns+pidermis and dermis are necroticPhotosensitiationNon pigmented areas of skin necrotie ngestion of photodynamic agent in the feed or secondary to chronic li&er disease/arge animals E$UDATIVE AND ULCERATIVE DERMATITIS Produce crusts or secondary ulcers on the skin, may !e se&ere spongiosus of the epidermis, due to edema Aer%ies ntensely pruritic, may !e seasonalypersensiti&ity reaction to antigen that is inhaled or ingested. Most common cause of e-udati&e dermatitis.+osinophils in cats and horses  !ut not dogs.atopyName gi&en to inhalant allergyMost common'ood allergyNot as common+osinophilic granuloma comple- Nodules or papules in the skinalong with ulcers0 histologically different diseases%at and horse, sometimes dogllergic contact dermatitis/esions &ary from papules to crusts and are commonly found on sparsely haired regions (feet, &entral !elly) similar to poison i&y%ontact of skin with an allergic su!stance (chemicals,  plastics)  rritant contact dermatitis/esions in sparsely haired regions, erythematous papulesor ulcers and crusts of e-udati&e dermatitis1irect contact of the skin withirritating o!2ect3 soap, drug, acid, detergentPyotraumatic dermatitis 4hot spots5Se&ere e-udati&e dermatitisSelf inflicted trauma of !iting and scratching due to pain and pruritis of allergic skin disease1og &'PER(ERATOTIC DISEASES yperkeratosis+-cess keratin, flakes or scales (se!orrhea)# orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis(keratinied cells lack a nucleus)Parakeratosis+-cess keratin#parakeratotic hyperkeratosis (nucleus of the cell is retained)6inc or $itamin  deficiencySe!orrhea1ry or oily# rare primary disease# inherited defect of keratin cells# secondary disease is common# after allergy,  parasites, infection, endocrine disease# %ocker spaniel# ll dogs &'PERPLASTIC DERMATITIS %haracteried !y histologic appearance two lesions of chronic skin diseasecanthosisyperplasia of the epidermis, skin thickened grossly with leathery te-ture ( ichenification ), there is also increased melanin pigment making the skin appear darker

Andromeda

Jul 23, 2017

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Jul 23, 2017
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