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Pectoral Girdle Mcqs Explained

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BASIC MAEDICAL SCIENCE
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  Pectoral Girdle, Shoulder and Arm 1. The stability of the shoulder jointa. Is primarily due to the strong capsule – musculotendinous rotator cuffb. Is assisted by the rotator cuff muscles <= correct, SSIT: sub, supra, infra, tminorc. Is aided by the splinting effect of short head of biceps – shunt (not splint) muscles: deltoid, long head triceps, coracobrachialis, short head of bicepsd. Is weakest posteriorly - inferiorlye. Is reliant on the deep glenoid cavity - shallow2. In the upper arma. The musculocutaneous nerve pierces and supplies the triceps muscle – radial passes between lat and med heads and pierces lateral intermuscular septum, musculocutaneous pierces coracobrachialisb. The axillary nerve arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus – post c. The median nerve crosses in front of the brachial artery <= starts lat, crosses ant, ends medd. The ulnar nerve passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres – median, ulnar between FCU, radial between supinatore. The radial nerve spirals around the front of the humerus - back3. The axillary arterya. Becomes the brachial artery at the lower border of teres minor – teres majorb. Is anteromedial to the axillary vein – the vein is anteromedial to the arteryc. Runs with branches of the brachial plexus in the 2nd part - cordsd. Gives off the subscapular artery from the third part <= 1 st : superior thoracic, 2 nd : thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic, 3 rd : subscapular, anterior and posterior circumflex humeral (S,TL,SAP)e. Commences at the medial border of the clavicle – the medial border 1 st  rib4. The trunks of the brachial plexus are founda. Between the scalene muscles – the rootsb. In the posterior trianglec. Around the second part of the axillary artery – the cordsd. Behind the clavicle – the divisionse. Immediately after the intervertebral foramina -?roots5. The brachial plexusa. Is formed from fibres from C4 to T1b. Gives off 2 branches from the trunks <= suprascapular and nerve to c. Gives off the radial nerve from the lateral cord - postd. Has the ulnar nerve as the largest branch of the medial cord <= it ise. Gives off the suprascapular nerve from the lateral cord – superior trunk6. Biceps brachiia. Is supplied by the axillary nerveb. Has no action on the shoulder joint  c. Arises from the infraglenoid tubercled. Has a short head attached in common with brachialis - coracobrachialise. Inserts into both radius and ulna <= debatable in Moore’s7. Tricepsa. Is supplied by three branches of the radial nerve – In Moore’s it is, by a study in 2004 showed long head is really spplied by axillaryb. Arises via its medial head from the lateral side of the radial groove – superior to radial groovec. May be weakened by mid humeral fractures – radial supply comes off proximallyd. Arises via the long head from the infraglenoid tubercle - truee. Assists in supination of the forearm – only extension (+ long head as shunt)8. Regarding the brachial plexus, all of the following are true EXCEPT:a. The roots forming the plexus originate from the anterior rami of C5, 6, 7, 8 and T1b. The roots lie between the scalenus medius and scalenus posterior muscles <= anterior/mediusc. The trunks lie in the lower part of the posterior triangled. The divisions are formed behind the claviclee. The cords are formed at the outer border of the 1st rib9. The axillary arterya. Becomes the brachial artery at the upper border of teres major - lowerb. Gives rise to the thoracoacromial artery as its largest branch - c. Lies medial to the axillary vein – the vein is antero medial to the arteryd. Gives rise to the superior thoracic artery which supplies latissimus dorsi – superior thoracic supplies 1 st  /snd intercostal spaces and upper slips serratus anterior. thoracodorsal a. -> lat. dorsie. Is the continuation of the third part of the subclavian artery <= true10. The brachialis muscle:a. Arises from the upper third of the humerus – distal halfb. Inserts into the coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna <= truec. Is suppled exclusively by the medial nerve - musculocutaneousd. Is a powerful supinator of the forearm – chief flexore. Adducts the arm – doesn’t cross the GHJ11. Paralysis of which nerve results in inability to initiate abduction of the arma. Axillary nerve – continue abduction via deltoidb. Suprascapular nerve <= to supraspinatous thus truec. Subscapular nerve – upper and lower to subscap, lower to teres majord. Dorsal scapular nerve – to rhomboids and lev scape. Thoracodorsal nerve – to lat dorsi  12. The axillaa. Communicates with the anterior triangle of the neck – no posterior via cervicoaxillary canalb. Contains lymph nodes draining the upperlimb and lateral chest wall <= truec. Has an anterior wall made up by the serratus anterior muscle – medial, anterior is pec muscles andclavipectoral fasciad. Has an apex bounded by the humerus, clavical and scapula – apex is outer 1 st  rib, clavical and scapular, humerus w/ intertubercular groove is the medial walle. Has no medial wall – as above it does13. The brachial artery:a. Crosses anterior to the median nerve in the arm – is crossed anteriorly by the median nerveb. Gives off the nutrient artery to the humerus <= truec. Lies deep to bicepsd. Has the ulnar nerve on its medial side – posteriomedial?e. Gives muscular branches to triceps14. The major stabilising factor of the sternoclavivular joint ita. The acromioclavicular ligamentb. The costoclavicular ligament <= not detailed in Moore’sc. The interclavicular ligamentd. The sternoclavicular ligamente. The coracoclavicular ligament15. The Musculocutaneous nerve:a. Supplies brachioradialis – by radiusb. Terminates as the posterior interosseous nerve – there is no posterior interosseusc. Supplies all of the brachialis muscle – no, the radial does also…d. Contains fibres from C5, C6, C7 and C8 – C5,6e. Arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus <= true16. An injury to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus will result in which of the following?a. Winging of the scapula – roots 5,6,7 -> long thoracicb. Paralysis of supraspinatus and infraspinatus – superior trunk -> suprascapularc. Paralysis of the clavicular part of pectoralis major – lat cord -> lateral pectorald. Numbness along the posterior part of the upper arm – SsTAR: upper posterolat via axiallary -> superior lateral cutaneous nerve, and radial to inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arme. Numbness along the medial part of the upper arm – medial 17. Which statement regarding the brachial plexus is true?a. It is formed by the posterior rami of C5, 6, 7, 8, T1 - anteriorb. The roots unite to form the trunks behind the clavicle – the trunks are in the (post) triangle, divisions behind the clavicle  c. The only branch from the trunks is thoracodorsal nerve to supra and infraspinatus – the suprascapluar nerve (and possibly the nerve to subclavius), the dorsal scapular spplies rhomboids and levator scapulaed. The cords are formed at the outer border of the first rib <=e. The ulnar nerve receives a branch from the lateral cord which carries fibres to flexor carpi ulnaris18. Fracture of the humerus can commonly result in which of the following lesions?a. Paralysis of tricepsb. Numbness over posterior part of upper armc. Numbness over 1st dorsal interosseous <=d. Numbness over posterior forearm and lateral upper arme. Paralysis of long flexors of fingers19. The posterior compartment of the arm hasa. The lateral head of triceps arising from the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapulab. The radial nerve occupying the whole of the spiral groovec. Triceps being innervated by three branches of the radial nerved. Radial nerve giving off lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm and lateral cutaneous nerve of forearme. The medial head of triceps also inserts into the elbow joint capsule20. The actions of deltoid include:a. Abduction of the arm with supraspinatusb. Extension of the arm with latissimus dorsic. Flexion and medial rotation of the arm with pectoralis majord. Steadying the arm in abduction (anterior and posterior fibres)e. All of the above <=
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