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Pepper

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cultivation method of pepper in detail
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  NATIONAL   MULTI ‐ COMMODITY   EXCHANGE   OF   INDIA   LIMITED   Report   on   Black   Pepper   4th   Floor   H.   K.   House,   B/h    Jivabhai   Chambers,   Ashram   Road,   Ahmedabad,   Gujarat   380   009   INDIA   Phone:   91 ‐ 79 ‐ 4008   6039   Fax:   91 ‐ 79 ‐ 4008 ‐ 6040   Email:   contact@nmce.com   URL:   www.nmce.com    Black   Pepper   2   Table   of   Contents   Introduction..................................................................................................................................3   Description....................................................................................................................................3   History...........................................................................................................................................3   How   to   Select   and   Store..............................................................................................................4   Harvesting.....................................................................................................................................4   Pepper   Growing   Area .................................................................................................................4   Indian   Names   of   Pepper.............................................................................................................6   Varieties.........................................................................................................................................6   Domestic   demand   supply   trend   of   Pepper..............................................................................7   Consumption................................................................................................................................8   Export.............................................................................................................................................8   Import............................................................................................................................................9   Important   markets   of   Pepper...................................................................................................10   International   scenario................................................................................................................10   Pepper   Price................................................................................................................................11    Black   Pepper   3 Introduction   Black   pepper   is   the   dried,   mature    but   unripe    berry   (fruit)   of   Piper   nigrum,   a    branching   vine   or   climbing,   perennial   shrub.   Black   pepper   is   the   most   important   spice   of   India   and   world   due   to   its   day ‐ to ‐ day   use.   It   is   therefore   rightly   considered   as   the  ʹ king   of   spices ʹ .   Trading   in   Pepper   futures   was   first   introduced    by   NMCE   in   April   2003.   Description   Black   pepper   comes   from   the    berries   of   the   pepper   plant.   Black   pepper,   green   pepper   and   white   peppercorns   are   actually   the   same   fruit   (Piper   nigrum);   the   difference   in   their   color   is   a   reflection   of   varying   stages   of   development   and   processing   methods.   Black   peppercorns   are   made    by   picking   the   pepper    berries   when   they   are   half   ripe   and    just   about   to   turn   red.   They   are   then   left   to   dry   which   causes   them   to   shrivel   and    become   dark   in   color.   Alternatively,   green   peppercorns   are   picked   while   still   unripe   and   green   in   color,   while   white   peppercorns   are   picked   when   very   ripe   and   subsequently   soaked   in    brine   to   remove   their   dark   outer   shell   leaving    just   the   white   pepper   seed.   Black   pepper   is   the   most   pungent   and   flavorful   of   all   types   of   peppers   and   it   is   available   as   whole   or   cracked   peppercorns   or   ground   into   powder.   History   Native   to   India,   pepper   has   played   a   very   important   role   throughout   history   and   has    been   a   prized   spice   since   ancient   times.   Since   ancient   Greece,   pepper   has   held   such   high   prestige   that   it   was   not   only   used   as   a   seasoning    but   as   a   currency   and   a   sacred   offering.   Pepper   was   used   to    both   honor   the   gods   and   to   pay   taxes   and   ransoms.   During   the   fall   of   ancient   Rome,   the   invading    barbarians   were   even   honored    by    being   given    black   pepper.   Additionally,   in   the   Middle   Ages   the   wealth   of   a   man   was   oftentimes   measured    by   his   stockpile   of   pepper.   The   reason   that   pepper   was   so   cherished   is   that   it   served   important   culinary   purposes.   Not   only   could   its   pungency   spice   up   otherwise    bland   foods,    but   it    Black   Pepper   4 could   disguise   a   food ʹ s   lack   of   freshness,   the   latter    being   an   especially   important   quality   in   the   times    before   efficient   means   of   preservation.   Pepper    became   an   important   spice   that   catalyzed   much   of   the   spice   trade.   This   not   only   led   to   exploration   of   many   undiscovered   lands,    but   also   to   the   development   of   major   merchant   cities   in   Europe   and   the   Middle   East.   Today,   the   major   commercial   producers   of   pepper   are   India   and   Indonesia.   How   to   Select   and   Store   Black   pepper   should    be   kept   in   a   tightly   sealed   glass   container   in   a   cool,   dark   and   dry   place.   Whole   peppercorns   will   keep   almost   indefinitely,   while   ground   pepper   will   stay   fresh   for   about   three   months.   Pepper   can   also    be   frozen   although   this   will   make   its   flavor   more   pronounced.   Harvesting   In   plains   the   harvesting   season   extends   from   November   to    January   and   in   hills   from    January   to   March.   But   in   Kerala   (having   production   share   of   96   %   in   India)   plants   flower   in   the   month   of   May ‐  June.   The   crop   takes   about   6 ‐ 8   months   from   flowering   to   harvest.   Pepper   Growing   Area   It   is   one   of   the   most   ancient   crops   cultivated   in   India.   It   probably   srcinated   in   the   hills   of   South ‐ Western   India   i.e.   from   North   Kanara   to   Kanyakumari.   It   is   mostly   found   in   hot   and   moist   parts   of   Southern   India.   Kerala   alone   contributes   about   96   per   cent   of   the   total   production   in   India,   next   comes   Karnataka   with   3.5   percent.   The   rest   is   contributed    by   Tamil   Nadu,   Pondicherry   and   Andaman   &   Nicobar.   Kerala   alone   accounts   for   94   percent   of   the   total   area   and   96   percent   of   the   total   production   of   pepper   in   India.   Even   though   pepper   is   cultivated   throughout   Kerala,   Calicut,   Cannanore,   Kottayam   and   Idukki   districts   account   for   67   %   of   the   total   pepper   area.   In   Karnataka,   Kodagu,   North   Kanara,   South   Kanara   and   Shimoga   are   major   centers   of   pepper   production.   Likewise   in   Tamil   Nadu,   Kanyakumari,   Nilgiris   and   Mahe   in   Pondicherry   are   the   other   major   centers   of   pepper   production.   Black   pepper   is   also   grown   in   some   parts   of   Orissa,   Andhra   Pradesh   and   North   Eastern   region.   But   now   pepper   cultivation   has   spread   to   some   parts   of   Goa   and   Maharashtra   also.  
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