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PER FOR MANCE OF STAN DARD CAR NA TION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS FOR GROWTH, FLOW ER ING AND YIELD UN DER NAT U RALLY VEN TI LATED POLY HOUSE IN RAYALASEEMA RE GION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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PER FOR MANCE OF STAN DARD CAR NA TION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS FOR GROWTH, FLOW ER ING AND YIELD UN DER NAT U RALLY VEN TI LATED POLY HOUSE IN RAYALASEEMA RE GION OF ANDHRA PRADESH
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  PER FOR MANCE OF STAN DARD CAR NA TION ( DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS   L.)CULTIVARS FOR GROWTH, FLOW ER ING AND YIELD UN DER NAT U RALLY VEN TI LATED POLY HOUSE IN RAYALASEEMA RE GION OF ANDHRA PRADESH Shamanth M.G., Nagaraju R., Swarajya Lakshmi K., Srinivasa Reddy D., Govindarajulu B. De part ment of Hor ti cul ture, Dr. Y.S.R. Hor ti cul tural Uni ver sity, Col lege of Hor ti cul ture, Anantharajupeta-516 105, A.P. E-mail : shamanth.100@gmail.com  ABSTRACT The present investigation was carried out to study the performance of ten carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus   L.) cultivarsunder naturally ventilated polyhouse in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh during the year 2015-16.Theexperiment consists of ten treatmentsand it was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Vegetative, flowering,and yieldcharacters varied significantly among the cultivars. The results revealed that cv. Dona was recordedmaximum plant height (112.00 cm),number of shoots (7.38) and length of shoots (110.10 cm)Whereas, cultivar Vincidorwas recorded maximum number of internodes per shoot (19.86), Number of leaves per plant (164.88) and early (93.26and 108.11 days) with respect to initiation of flower buds and bud opening and also recorded highest number of flowersper plant (8.80).The best quality flowers with respect to growth, earliness and yield were obtained in Vincidor followed by Dona and Soto. Key words :  Car na tion, Cultivars, Poly house, Qual ity, Yield. The carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) known as divineflower, is one of the world’s most popular and leading cutflowers belonging to the family Caryophyllaceae, havingdiploid chromosome number of 2n=30. It holds anesteemed position among the top ten cut flowers in theinternational cut flower trade due to its excellent keepingquality and wide array of forms as well as colours. It isbelieved to be a native of the Mediterranean region and itis a national flower of Spain.Major carnation growing countries are Italy, Spain,Columbia, Kenya, Srilanka, Canary Islands, France,Holland, USA and Germany. The major importers ofcarnation are France, United Kingdom, Holland, Israel,Italy, Spain, Peru, Greece, Mexico and Ecuador. In India,potentiality for cultivating quality carnations remained incool climatic regions viz., Kashmir, Kullu Valley,Kalimpong, Bengaluru etc. The area around Delhi, U.P,Punjab, Nasik, Srinagar, Solan, Coimbatore includingNilgiri hills are the favourable carnation growing zones inIndia.Carnation is a long day plant. The growth andflowering of carnation are influenced by several factors.Standard types perform well under cool climate, whereasspray type grow better at higher temperature. Theoptimum night temperature for carnation is 10-11°Cduring winter and 13-15.5°C in summer and the optimumday temperature range is 18-24°C. Carnation requiresmore than 21.5 K lux light intensity, cyclic lighting orcontinuous lighting from dusk to dawn to hasten flowering. The humidity of greenhouse should be maintained at80-85% during early stages of vegetative growth and60-65% during peak growth and flowering stage. Carbondioxide level also affects both plant growth and flowerquality. The greenhouse CO 2  level should be maintainedat 300-500 ppm on cloudy days and 750-1500 ppm onsunny days and a low level of CO 2  100-150 ppm ingreenhouse during the day inhibits the plant growth. Standard carnations are commercially grown underprotected structures to ensure good quality and yieldwhere design and orientation of greenhouse are of greatimportance so as to ensure sufficient amount of light andproper ventilation. A greenhouse having ridges in theNorth-South direction is ideal for proper ventilation andlight intensity, though there are different types ofgreenhouses, naturally ventilated polyhouses arepreferred where temperature is regulated by ventilation(Ryagi et al.  2007). The flower quality is to be maintained in the longdistance transport as they have ability to rehydrate aftertransportation. So testing of the varieties for suitability and adaptability with respect to flowering, flower quality, andyield parameters are of prime importance. Hence, theobjective of this study was to evaluate suitability ofdifferent carnation cultivars by analyzing their vegetativecharacteristics under the agro climactic conditions ofRayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was conducted under naturally ventilatedpolyhouse at College of Horticulture, Anantharajupetaduring the year 2015-2016. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with ten treatments  Progressive Research – An International Journal    Society for Scientific Development  Print ISSN : 0973-6417, Online ISSN : 2454-6003 in Agriculture and Technology  Volume 11 (Special-VIII) : 5160-5163 (2016) Meerut (U.P.) INDIA  replicated thrice. The treatments consists of standardcarnation cultivars viz., White Dona, Vincidor, Dona, DarkDona, Soto, Big Mama, Golem, Happy Golem, Darjeelingand Malaga. The healthy planting materials were collected from private source Florance Flora, Bengaluru. The soilwas sterilized with 5% formalin and covered with blackpolyethylene for 72 hours and twenty eight plants of eachcultivar were planted in each replication on raised beds ofsize 30 cm height × 120 cm width × 10 m length withwalkway distance of 50 cm between beds.The supportwas provided by iron rods at 2 m distance on both sides ofthe beds. Four layers of net were laid using GI wire andnylon thread. Single pinching is followed by leaving sixinternodes enable to allow the side shoots to develop.Standard package of practices was followed during thecrop growth period with regular nutrient applicationthrough fertigation.The data were collected on variousvegetative and flowering parameters from the sevenrandomly tagged plants at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 daysafter pinching. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Plant height : Significance differences were observedamong different cultivars. The range of plant height wasfrom 62.76 cm to 112.00 cm. The tallest plant height wasfrom Dona (112.00 cm) followed by Vincidor (111.71 cm)and Dark Dona (103.81 cm), whereas the shortest fromDarjeeling 62.76 cm. Mehmood et al.  2014 recordedmaximum 78.66 cm plant height from Grand Salamcultivar of carnation grown under lath house. Chauhan et al.  (2014) found a range of 50.41 cm to 95.61 cm plantheight in 50 genotypes of carnation.This variability in plantheight among the carnation cultivars is mainly due togenetic nature, growing environmental conditions,production technology and cultural practices (Sathisha,1997, Patil, 2001 and Shiragur et al.  2004). Similarvariation in plant height among varieties was alsoobserved in chrysanthemum (Uddin et al. 2015) and ingerbera (Dipika et al.  2014). Number of shoots/plant : Cultivar Dona (7.38) andVincidor (7.23) recorded more number of shootswhereas,it was minimum in Darjeeling (5.42). Production of number of shoots is greatly influenced by apical dominance.Cultivars Dona and Vincidor exhibited lesser apicaldominance as compared to Darjeeling. Similar differences with respect to number of shoots per plant were alsonoticed by Gharge et al. (2011). These results are alsosimilar to that of Mehmood et al.  (2014) and Tarannum et al. (2014) in carnation cultivars. Length of shoots : Length of the shoots variedsignificantly among the different cultivars of carnation.Cultivar Dona recorded maximum maximum shoot lengthof (110.10 cm), however it was on par with the cultivars Shamanth et al., 5161 Table-1 : Performance of standard carnation cultivars for vegetative parameters in naturally ventilated polyhouse. CultivarsPlant height (cm)No ofshootsLength ofshoots (cm)Stem girth(mm)No ofinternodesInternodallength (cm)No ofleaves White Dona102.286.9597.235.4118.446.91141.53Vincidor111.717.23108.554.6719.866.14164.88Dona112.007.38110.104.8019.546.21158.20Dark Dona103.817.0993.704.5918.765.21110.86Soto101.006.8099.655.1919.635.87139.06Big Mama89.816.80100.243.2014.307.42101.27Golem79.617.0092.534.5017.126.0389.87Happy Golem78.286.3889.653.3516.554.2795.87Darjeeling62.765.4282.973.2515.064.9481.07Malaga78.666.6184.253.7918.194.8191.17S. Em±2.660.271.210.060.310.071.46CD @ 5%7.910.793.600.160.920.224.34 Table-2 : Performance of standard carnation cultivars for flowering and flower yield parameters in naturally ventilated polyhouse. CultivarsDays taken for flower budinitiationDays taken for bud openingNo of flowers per plant White Dona111.85130.567.55Vincidor93.26108.118.80Dona118.42145.068.51Dark Dona124.30152.656.73Soto99.95119.808.15Big Mama146.20178.795.66Golem108.71124.056.58Happy Golem116.55136.576.32Darjeeling138.09158.165.91Malaga136.50158.977.25S. Em±1.641.940.09CD @ 5%4.865.760.26  Vincidor (108.55 cm), Big Mama (100.24 cm) and Soto(99.65 cm). However, cultivar Darjeeling producedminimum (82.97 cm) length of shoot. The difference inshoot length among the different cultivars may beattributed to the inherent genetic characters associatedwith the genotypes and also due to the growingenvironmental conditions as reported by Dalalet al. (2009)and Tarannum et al. (2014). Gharge et al  . (2009) recorded maximum shoot length of 107.44 cm in carnation cultivarYellow Firato grown under polyhouse (NVPH). Stem girth :  A glance of the results revealed that, cultivars varied significantly for stem girth and ranged between 3.20 to 5.41 mm. White Dona (5.41 mm) and Soto (5.19 mm)had thicker and stronger stems whereas, minimum wasnoticed in the Big Mama (3.20 mm). These findings are inline with results obtained previously in different carnationcultivars by Mahesh (1996), Shiragur (2002), Ghargeet al.(2009) and Tarannum et al  . (2014). Thicker stemsindicated that these cultivars have higher capacity ofstoring reserve food material. Number of internodes : Carnation cultivar Vincidor(19.86) recorded maximum number of internodes perstem followed by Dona (19.54), Soto (19.63) and WhiteDona (18.44) while, it was minimum in cultivar Big Mama(14.30) and Darjeeling (15.06).Variations in number ofinternodes per stem had been recorded earlier amongdifferent carnation varieties by Gharge et al. (2009)recorded maximum 22.80 internodes per stem incarnation cultivar Yello Firato and Mehmood et al. (2014)recorded maximum number of internodes (12.66) incarnation cultivar Nelson. Similar variations in number ofinternodes have been recorded earlier in carnation asreported by Heins et al.  (1979), Patil (2001) and Tarannum et al. (2014). These differences in number of internodesper stem may be due to varietal characters. Internodal length :  Maximuminternodal length wasrecorded in cultivar Big Mama (7.42 cm) followed by White Dona (6.91 cm) and Dona (6.21 cm) while, minimuminternodal length was recorded in cultivar Happy Golem(4.27 cm). These findings are in line with the resultsobtained previously by Mahesh (1996), Patil (2001)Gharge et al.  (2009) and Tarannum et al.  (2014) incarnation. Number of leaves/plant : Among the cultivars, number of leaves produced per plant was maximum in cultivarVincidor (164.88) whereas minimum number of leaves per plant was recorded in Darjeeling (81.87). This might bedue to taller plant, increased number of secondary shoots, number of nodes and the congenial microclimate thatprevailed inside the Polyhouse favoring increased growthrate of plants. Similar results were obtained by Patil (2001) Shiragur (2002), Shahakar et al.  (2004) and Maitra andRoychowdhury (2014). Flowering parameters : Days to flower bud initiation: The cultivar Vincidor was first to show the visible flower bud bytaking 93.26 days after planting and found significantlysuperior over other cultivars whereas, cultivars Big Mama(146.20 days), Darjeeling (138.09 days) and Malaga(136.50 days) were late in initiating flower bud. Similarvariations due to cultivars were also observed by Patil(2001), Shiragur et al.  (2004), Dalal et al.  (2009), Gharge et al. (2009), Chauhan et al.,  (2014) and Tarannum et al., (2014). These variations for flower bud initiation may beattributed to genetic make-up and physiologicaldifferences among the cultivars as reported earlier byMiske (1982), Bhautkar (1994) and Reddy  et al. (2004). Days to flower bud opening : The cultivar Vincidor wasthe earliest to open its buds by taking 108.11 daysfollowed by Soto 119.80 whereas, cultivar Big Mama(178.79) was very late for flower bud opening. The result is 5162 Shamanth et al., DonaBig MamaHappy GolemMalagaDark DonaGolemSotoDarjeeling  Shamanth et al., 5163 in accordance with the findings by Patil (2001) andShiragur et al.  (2002). These variations might be attributed to genetical makeup and physiological differences amongthe genotypes as reported by Gharge et al. (2009) andTarannum et al.  (2014). Yield per plant :  There was a significant differenceobserved among the carnation cultivars for flower yield per plant. The highest number of flowers per plant was foundfrom Vincidor (8.80) followed by Dona (8.51) and Soto(8.15). Whereas, cv. Big Mama (5.66) produced minimumnumber of flowers per plant.The flower yield might beattributed to more number of leaves resulted in productionand accumulation of maximum photosynthetic materialwhich ultimately resulted in production of more number offlowers with bigger sized flowers. Carnation flowernumber ranged from 6.33 to 11.67 per plant (Tarannum et al.  2014) and 5.33 to 7.64 per plant (Gharge et al. 2011).Cultivar Tempo (6.4) recorded highest number ofcarnation flowers per plant whereas, cultivar Kaly (2.66)produced minimum number of flowers per plant whengrown under lath house condition (Mehmood et al. 2014). CONCLUSIONS The above mentioned findings indicated that consideringthe important characteristics, the cultivars Vincidor, Donaand Soto have emerged as promising cultivarswithrespect to growth, earliness in flowering and floweryield. Hence, these cultivars havebeen found suitable forcommercial cultivation under naturally ventilatedpolyhouse in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. REFERENCES 1.Bhautkar, M.Y. 1994. Carnation cultivation in greenhouseunder Mahabaleshwar condition.  Journal of MaharashtraAgricultural University, 19 (2) :   292-293.2.Chauhan, P.Dhiman, S.R. Bharati, K. Gupta, Y.C. Gupta,R.K. and Dogra, R.K. 2014. Evaluation of carnationgermplasm for its growth and flowering performance. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 4(3) :   81-90. 3.Dalal, S.R. Wankar, A.M. and Somavanshi, A.V. 2009.Performance of carnation cultivars under polyhousecondition. The Asian Journal of Horticulture, 4(1) :  225-226.4.Dipika, S, Swathi, K and Tapas, M. 2014. Evaluation ofgerbera varieties for growth and flowering underpolyhouse in the plains of west Bengal. International Journal of Scientific Research, 3(12) : 135-136.5.Gharge, C.P. Angadi, S.G. Basavaraj, N. Patil, A.Biradar,M.S. and Mummigatti U.V. 2011.Performance of standardcarnation varieties under naturally ventilated polyhouse. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24 (4):  (487-489).6.Heins, R.D. Wilkins, H.F. and Healy, W.E. 1979. The effectof photoperiod on lateral shoot development in( Dianthuscaryophyllus   L.) cv. Improved White Sim. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science, 104 : 314-319.7.Mahesh, K. 1996. Variability studies in Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus   L). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences  . Bangalore.8.Maitra, S. and Roychowdhury, N. 2014.Performance ofDifferent Carnation ( Dianthus Caryophyllus   L.) CultivarsGrown from Seed in the Plains of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 5(2) :   294-297.9.Mehmood, M.A. Muhammad, S.A. and Naveed, A.2014.Growth, Yield and Quality of Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus   L.) cultivars under Lath House Conditions. Journal of Ornamental Plants. 4(1) :   27-32.10.Miske, T. 1982. Mini Carnations variety trials.Gb + Gw. 82(2): 159-162.11.Patil, R.T. 2001. Evaluation of standard carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus  ) cultivars under protected cultivation.  M.Sc.Thesis, University of Agriculture Sciences,  Dharwad.12.Reddy, B.S. Paid, R.I.Jholgiker, P. and Kulkarni, B.S. 2004.Studies on vegetative growth, flower yield and quality ofstandard Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus   L.) under lowcost polyhouse condition. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture. 7(3-4) :   217-220.13.Ryagi, V.Y.Mantur, S.M. and Reddy, B.S. 2007.Effect ofpinching on growth, yield and quality of flower of Carnation varieties grown under polyhouse. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(4) : 816-818.14.Sathisha, S. 1997. Evaluation of Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus   L.) cultivars under low cost greenhouse. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore.15.Shahakar, A.W. Golliwar, V.J. Bhuyar, A.R. Dharmik,Y.B.Kadu, R.B. and Gondane, S.U. 2004.Growth,flowering quality and yield of Carnation cultivars underpolyhouse condition. Journal of Soils and Crops.14(2) :  305-307.16.Shiragur, M, Shirol, A.M, Gorabal, K, Reddy, B.S. andKulkarni, B.S, 2004a. Evaluation of standard Carnationcultivars for their flowering, flower quality and yieldparameters under protected cultivation. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 7 (3-4) : 206-211.17Shiragur, M. 2002. Performance of standard Carnation( Dianthus caryophyllus  ) cultivars under protectedconditions for second flush. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis,University of Agriculture Sciences,  Dharwad, Karnataka,India.18.Tarannum, M.S. and Naik, H.B. 2014. Performance ofcarnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus   L.) genotypes forqualitative and quantitative parameters to assess geneticvariability among genotypes. American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied and Natural Sciences, 96-101.19.Uddin, A.F.M. Taufique, T. Ona, A.F.Shahrin, S. and Mehraj, H. 2015. Growth and flowering performance evaluation ofthirty two chrysanthemum cultivars. Journal of Bioscience and Agriculture Research, 4(1) : 40–51.
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