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   The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4), by J. Arthur ThomsonThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4) A Plain Story Simply ToldAuthor: J. Arthur ThomsonRelease Date: January 22, 2007 [EBook #20417]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK OUTLINE OF SCIENCE ***Produced by Brian Janes, Leonard Johnson and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net[Illustration: THE GREAT SCARLET SOLAR PROMINENCES, WHICH ARE SUCH ANOTABLE FEATURE OF THE SOLAR PHENOMENA, ARE IMMENSE OUTBURSTS OF FLAMINGHYDROGEN RISING SOMETIMES TO A HEIGHT OF 500,000 MILES]THEOUTLINE OF SCIENCEA PLAIN STORY SIMPLY TOLDEDITED BYJ. ARTHUR THOMSONREGIUS PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY IN THEUNIVERSITY OF ABERDEENWITH OVER 800 ILLUSTRATIONSOF WHICH ABOUT 40 ARE IN COLOURIN FOUR VOLUMES  G. P. PUTNAM'S SONSNEW YORK AND LONDONThe Knickerbocker pressCopyright, 1922byG. P. Putnam's Sons _First Printing April, 1922Second Printing April, 1922Third Printing April, 1922Fourth Printing April, 1922Fifth Printing June, 1922Sixth Printing June, 1922Seventh Printing June, 1922Eighth Printing June, 1922Ninth Printing August, 1922Tenth Printing September, 1922Eleventh Printing Sept., 1922Twelfth Printing, May, 1924_ Made in the United States of AmericaINTRODUCTORY NOTEBy Professor J. Arthur ThomsonWas it not the great philosopher and mathematician Leibnitz who saidthat the more knowledge advances the more it becomes possible tocondense it into little books? Now this Outline of Science iscertainly not a little book, and yet it illustrates part of the meaningof Leibnitz's wise saying. For here within reasonable compass there is alibrary of little books--an outline of many sciences.It will be profitable to the student in proportion to the discriminationwith which it is used. For it is not in the least meant to be of thenature of an Encyclopædia, giving condensed and comprehensive articleswith a big full stop at the end of each. Nor is it a collection of primers, beginning at the very beginning of each subject and workingmethodically onwards. That is not the idea.What then is the aim of this book? It is to give the intelligentstudent-citizen, otherwise called the man in the street, a bunch ofintellectual keys by which to open doors which have been hitherto shutto him, partly because he got no glimpse of the treasures behind thedoors, and partly because the portals were made forbidding by anunnecessary display of technicalities. Laying aside conventional modesof treatment and seeking rather to open up the subject as one might on a  walk with a friend, the work offers the student what might be calledinformal introductions to the various departments of knowledge. To putit in another way, the articles are meant to be clues which the readermay follow till he has left his starting point very far behind. Perhapswhen he has gone far on his own he will not be ungrateful to the simplebook of instructions to travellers which this Outline of Science isintended to be. The simple bibliographies appended to the variousarticles will be enough to indicate first books. Each article is meantto be an invitation to an intellectual adventure, and the short lists ofbooks are merely finger-posts for the beginning of the journey.We confess to being greatly encouraged by the reception that has beengiven to the English serial issue of The Outline of Science. It hasbeen very hearty--we might almost say enthusiastic. For we agree withProfessor John Dewey, that the future of our civilisation depends uponthe widening spread and deepening hold of the scientific habit of mind. And we hope that this is what The Outline of Science makes for.Information is all to the good; interesting information is better still;but best of all is the education of the scientific habit of mind.Another modern philosopher, Professor L. T. Hobhouse, has declared thatthe evolutionist's mundane goal is the mastery by the human mind of theconditions, internal as well as external, of its life and growth. Underthe influence of this conviction The Outline of Science has beenwritten. For life is not for science, but science for life. And evenmore than science, to our way of thinking, is the individual developmentof the scientific way of looking at things. Science is our legacy; wemust use it if it is to be our very own.CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 3I. THE ROMANCE OF THE HEAVENS 7 The scale of the universe--The solar system--Regions of the sun--The surface of the sun--Measuring the speed of light--Is the sun dying?--The planets--Venus--Is there life on Mars?--Jupiter and Saturn--The moon--The mountains of the moon--Meteors and comets--Millions of meteorites--A great comet--The stellar universe--The evolution of stars--The age of stars--The nebular theory--Spiral nebulæ--The birth and death of stars--The shape of our universe--Astronomical instruments.II. THE STORY OF EVOLUTION 53 The beginning of the earth--Making a home for life--The first living creatures--The first plants--The first animals--Beginnings of bodies--Evolution of sex--Beginning of natural death--Procession of life through the ages--Evolution of land animals--The flying dragons--The first known bird--Evidences of evolution--Factors in evolution.III. ADAPTATIONS TO ENVIRONMENT 113   The shore of the sea--The open sea--The deep sea--The fresh waters--The dry land--The air.IV. THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE 135 Animal and bird mimicry and disguise--Other kinds of elusiveness.V. THE ASCENT OF MAN 153 Anatomical proof of man's relationship with a Simian stock--Physiological proof--Embryological proof--Man's pedigree--Man's arboreal apprenticeship--Tentative men--Primitive men--Races of mankind--Steps in human evolution--Factors in human progress.VI. EVOLUTION GOING ON 183 Evolutionary prospect for man--The fountain of change; variability--Evolution of plants--Romance of wheat--Changes in animal life--Story of the salmon--Forming new habits--Experiments in locomotion; new devices.VII. THE DAWN OF MIND 205 A caution in regard to instinct--A useful law--Senses of fishes--The mind of a minnow--The mind and senses of amphibians--The reptilian mind--Mind in birds--Intelligence co-operating with instinct--The mind of the mammal--Instinctive aptitudes--Power of association--Why is there not more intelligence?--The mind of monkeys--Activity for activity's sake--Imitation--The mind of man--Body and mind.VIII. FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNIVERSE 243 The world of atoms--The energy of atoms--The discovery of X-rays--The discovery of radium--The discovery of the electron--The electron theory--The structure of the atom--The new view of matter--Other new views--The nature of electricity--Electric current--The dynamo--Magnetism--Ether and waves--Light--What the blue sky means--Light without heat--Forms of energy--What heat is--Substitutes for coal--Dissipation of energy--What a uniform temperature would mean--Matter, ether, and Einstein--The tides--Origin of the moon--The earth slowing down--The day becoming longer.ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE

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