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Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

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In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and
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  This article was downloaded by: [University of Peshawar], [Jawad Ali]On: 01 September 2014, At: 01:19Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Natural Product Research: FormerlyNatural Product Letters Publication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gnpl20 Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial,antioxidant and urease inhibitorypotential of Cyphostemma digitatumLam. Rasool Khan a , Abdullah Qasem Saif  a , Mohammad MansourQuradha a , Jawad Ali a  & Abdur Rauf  aa  Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar,Peshawar-25120, KPKPakistanPublished online: 26 Aug 2014. To cite this article:  Rasool Khan, Abdullah Qasem Saif, Mohammad Mansour Quradha, Jawad Ali& Abdur Rauf (2014): Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitorypotential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam., Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural ProductLetters, DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.950575 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.950575 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &   Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   P  e  s   h  a  w  a  r   ] ,   [   J  a  w  a   d   A   l   i   ]  a   t   0   1  :   1   9   0   1   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   4  SHORT COMMUNICATIONPhytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitorypotential of   Cyphostemma digitatum  Lam. Rasool Khan*, Abdullah Qasem Saif, Mohammad Mansour Quradha, Jawad Ali and Abdur Rauf   Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar-25120, KPK, Pakistan (  Received 21 May 2014; final version received 29 July 2014 )In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potentialalong with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of   Cyphostemmadigitatum  Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic andaqueous extracts of   C. digitatum  showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids,saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract(hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against  Bacillussubtilis , while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanoliccrude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crudeextract. Keywords:  Cyphostemma digitatum ; phytochemical screening; antimicrobial;antioxidant; urease inhibition activities 1. Introduction Cyphostemma digitatum  Lam. a species of family Vitaceae, genus  Cyphostemma  is found inYemen, Ethiopia and Somalia. It is commonly known as halqa and its use for the treatment of malaria is reported in various traditional systems.  C. digitatum  is the main constituent of soupand a source of taste and aroma of many other traditional dishes (Al-Duais, Hohbein, et al.2009). Ethno medicinal information reveals that  C. digitatum  is used for the treatment of vomiting, typhoid, nausea, flu, fatigue, headache and for the cure of liver damage. Some peopleuse it for polishing precious metals and jewellery by rubbing the fresh leaves over the surface(Al-Duais, Muller, et al. 2009; Al-Duais et al. 2012). In spite of its important applications, the chemistry and biology of   C. digitatum  are not explored. This work was therefore conducted toexplore the chemical nature and therapeutic potential of this plant. This research work investigates the phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of  C. digitatum. 2. Results and discussion Phytochemical screening of the crude hot extract, cold extract and aqueous extract is given inTable S1 (see supplementary Table S1 – online only). The anti-radical activity of combinedcrude extract, aqueous extract and synergistic profile is given in Table S2 (see supplementaryTable S2 – online only) and Table S3 (see supplementary Table S3 – online only).The antibacterial effect of crude methanolic and aqueous extract is given in Table S4 (seesupplementary Table S4 – online only), while the antifungal profile is listed in Table S5 (see q 2014 Taylor & Francis *Corresponding author. Email: rasoolkhan1@hotmail.com  Natural Product Research , 2014http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.950575    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   P  e  s   h  a  w  a  r   ] ,   [   J  a  w  a   d   A   l   i   ]  a   t   0   1  :   1   9   0   1   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   4  supplementary Table S4 – online only). The urease inhibitory activity is given in Table S6 (seesupplementary Table S4 – online only).Phytochemical screening of the crude methanolic and aqueous extracts of   C. digitatum indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, betacyanins,coumarins, phenolic compounds and steroids. Polar compounds were detected in the polarextract while non-polar compounds were identified in the non-polar extract. Both alcoholic andaqueous extracts were also assessed for antimicrobial potential against selected bacterial strains.The antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of (methanol and aqueous) leaves of   C. digitatum against some microorganisms inspected was evaluated for the presence or absence of inhibitionzones. The hot methanolic extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against the testedbloodline bacteria (  Bacillus subtilis ) with zone of inhibition range from 12 to 16mm. While noactivity was observed for the aqueous extract Table S4 (see supplementary Table S4 – onlineonly). Antifungal activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts was inspected by the tube dilutionmethods. Crude methanolic extract showed good antifungal activity against  Fusariumoxysporum  and  Aspergillus niger  , while hot methanolic extract was found active against  F.oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus.  The aqueous extract was found active against  A. niger   and  A. flavus  Table S5 (see supplementary Table S5 – online only). DMSO was used as a negativecontrol while miconazole and amphotericin-B were used as standard drugs. DPPH antioxidanttesting provides data on the reactivity of the crude methanolic and aqueous extracts with a stablefree radical. DPPH gives a strong absorption band at 517nm in the visible region (seesupplementary Table S2 – online only). sum up percent anti-radical activities at diverseconcentration ranging from 10 to 100 m g/mL for crude extracts of MeOH (hot), MeOH (cold)and aqueous of leaves of   C. digitatum  high anti-radical activity was recorded 53.38 ^ 1.98 forcrude extracts of MeOH (hot) and 33.35 ^ 1.91 for crude extract of cold methanol atconcentration 100 m g/mL ware found to be active against ascorbic acid. Increasing theconcentration gives rise to increases in anti-radical activity, Table S2. Highest anti-radicalactivity for aqueous crude extract of leaves of   C. digitatum  was shown as 24.39 ^ 1.00 at100 m g/mL. The crude methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves of   C. digitatum  were mixedtogether in various ratios Table S3 and the mixture were then screened for anti-oxidant potential.It was noted that admixtures and the mixture were then screened for anti-oxidant potential.Therefore, various concentrations (10–100 m g/mL) of the mixture including crude extracts of both (methanolic and aqueous) extracts prepared at variation ratio were involved; 80 MeOH(hot)/20 aqueous, 60 MeOH (hot)/40 aqueous, 40 MeOH (hot)/60 aqueous, and 20 MeOH (hot)/ 80 aqueous %, respectively, in all concentrations, Table S3.It was noted in the results at the start decreases in anti-radical activities 26.28 ^ 1.13–12.29 ^ 1.10% with increase of concentration of aqueous extract in the mixture, followed thatincreases up to 22.23 ^ 1.17 and return decreases up to 15.95 ^ 1.18 when the concentration of aqueous extract was raised up to 80% in 10 m g/mL mixture, while in 20, 40 and 60 m g/mL themixtures were observed 27.17 ^ 1.18, 31.06 ^ 1.19 and 36.74 ^ 1.16, respectively, Table S3.The maximum anti-radical activities recorded were 53.34 ^ 1.14 and 40.99 ^ 1.11 at aconcentration of 100 m g/mL when admixtures were M80/W20 and M60/W40, respectively. Thecrude methanolic extracts showed 60.9% urease enzyme inhibition activity. While aqueousextract was found least active among the tested samples. 3. Conclusion In conclusion, the phytochemical analysis of   C. digitatum  indicated the presence of bioactivesecondary metabolites. The crude methanolic extract of   C. digitatum  displayed goodantioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and urease inhibitory activities which may be due to the2  R. Khan  et al.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   P  e  s   h  a  w  a  r   ] ,   [   J  a  w  a   d   A   l   i   ]  a   t   0   1  :   1   9   0   1   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   4  presence of detected bioactive constituents. The isolation of pure compounds may be proved uspotential lead source. Supplementary material Experimental details related to this manuscript are available online, alongside Tables S1–S6(see supplementary online only). Funding The authors are grateful to Yemen Ministry of Higher Education for providing scholarship and financialsupport and to the University of Peshawar for providing research facilities. References Al-Duais M, Al-Awthan YS, Al-Mashad A, Shamsan MA. 2012. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liverdamage in guinea pigs by  Cyphostemma digitatum . J Life Sci. 6:137–143.Al-DuaisM, Hohbein J, Werner S, Volkerbo HM, Jetschke G. 2009. Contents of vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols,andtocotrienols in the subtropical plant species  Cyphostemma digitatum  as affected by processing. J Agric FoodChem. 57:5420–5427.Al-Duais M, Muller L, Bohm V, Jetschke G. 2009. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics of   Cyphostemma digitatum before and after processing: use of different assays. Eur Food Res Technol. 228:813–821.  Natural Product Research  3    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   P  e  s   h  a  w  a  r   ] ,   [   J  a  w  a   d   A   l   i   ]  a   t   0   1  :   1   9   0   1   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   4
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