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Pipe Recovery Services

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Drilling and Evaluation Pipe Recovery Services Fast and effective expertise Pipe recovery services With more than 65 years of wireline and ballistics expertise, Baker Hughes is the industry leader in safe
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Drilling and Evaluation Pipe Recovery Services Fast and effective expertise Pipe recovery services With more than 65 years of wireline and ballistics expertise, Baker Hughes is the industry leader in safe and economical recovery of downhole tubular goods. Pipe recovery operations generally occur in three stages: free-point depth determination, pipe separation, and fishing the remaining stuck pipe. A pipestring can become stuck during drilling, completion, or workover operations, causing lost time and additional expenses. When this problem occurs, quick resolution is needed to get operations back underway. Baker Hughes has the technology, tools, and expertise to solve specific stuckpipe problems. Decades of research, development, testing, and worldwide experience set Baker Hughes apart from other service contractors in analyzing the wide range of pipe-sticking conditions and developing innovations. Baker Hughes pipe recovery specialists will help determine the root cause of the stuck pipe through a thorough analysis of the well configuration and events leading to the problem. The proper tools and services are then selected to efficiently execute pipe recovery operations. Next, the pipestring is worked sufficiently to determine the free point and, then, backed off or cut to remove the free portion from the well. After retrieving the free pipe, the well can be reentered to jar loose or wash over the remaining stuck pipe. In certain drilling operations, the remaining stuck pipe may be sidetracked for economic reasons. Capabilities Free-point indicator systems Motorized anchor Magnetic anchor Bow-spring anchor Diagnostic logging services Pipe recovery log Temperature/Sonan (noise) log Back-off and cutting services String-shot back-off Mechanical Pipe Cutter (MPC ) tool Chemical cutters Jet cutters Metal-severing tools Split-shot cutters Radial cutting torch 2 Pipe recovery guidelines Special tools, wireline techniques, and expertise from Baker Hughes provide fast, efficient, and economical pipe recovery operations. The following guidelines help determine pipe pull force, borehole-fluid buoyancy factor, and pipe torque (prior to back-off) estimates. This information is essential when performing pipe recovery operations. Pipe-stretch readings Pipe-stretch readings are made to estimate the free-point depth of a pipestring and used for a number of important reasons: Speed up pipe recovery operations Determine the size and strength of string-shot needed Specify the initiator type and detonating cord to construct the string-shot Determine proper weight and torque when operating free-point instruments To estimate free-point depth, first calculate the pipestring weight, including the rig traveling blocks. Pick up the pipestring to this weight, and mark the pipe at the rotary table. Then, pull the required weight for the specific pipe, and mark the pipe again at the rotary table. The distance between the two marks (pipe stretch) can be used to indicate the stuck point of the pipestring. A general rule of thumb for standard pipe stretch is 3½ in. of stretch equals 1,000 ft (305 m) of free pipe. Pipestring buoyancy factor To calculate pipe weight accurately, the pipe buoyancy factor must be included. Buoyancy relates to the pipestring floating effect when submerged in borehole fluid. Buoyancy factor = 1 - mud weight (lbm/gal) Hydrostatic pressure = depth (ft) x fluid weight (lbm/gal) x Pipe torque rules of thumb For tightening: Drillpipe one round per thousand feet of free pipe Tubing 1¼ to 1½ rounds per thousand feet of free pipe Casing will rarely need to be tightened Left-hand torque to back off: Drillpipe ½ to ¾ round per thousand feet of free pipe Tubing 1 to 1½ rounds per thousand feet of free pipe Casing ¼ round per thousand feet of free pipe Pipe torque rules of thumb will vary with hole and pipestring conditions. Please consult your Baker Hughes pipe recovery specialist before attempting back-off operations. Mechanical sticking stuck packer Differential pressure or wall sticking 3 Diagnostic logging services Free pipe Pipe collar Pipe recovery log The pipe recovery log uses acoustic measurement techniques to provide a continuous record and evaluation of a stuck pipestring. This logging service can be performed through drillpipe, casing, or tubing to identify problem areas. Acoustic pulses, initiated at the instrument s transmitter, travel through the pipestring and are measured at the receiver. The acoustic energy level at the receiver is proportional to the degree of sticking. Similar to conventional cement-bond log measurements, low-attenuation readings indicate free pipe and high-attenuation readings indicate stuck pipe. Stuck pipe interval The pipe recovery log provides a continuous record of all stuck intervals and areas of possible restrictions. This information is useful in planning the pipe recovery and subsequent fishing operations. Temperature Raw Data, Profile Line Corrected Flowing temperature profile Expected temperature gradient Band Pass, Line Corrected Zone taking fluid Zone producing fluid Temperature/Sonan log To locate underground blowouts and lost-circulation zones, the temperature log is typically run in combination with the Sonan (noise) log in pipe recovery operations. The temperature log provides a continuous measurement of borehole fluid temperature, while the Sonan log detects the sound of moving fluids in or near the wellbore Hole collapse - lost circulation Hz Hz Hz 2000 Hz 4100 The temperature/sonan (noise) log combination can be used to locate fluid entry into the wellbore, underground blowouts, and lost-circulation zones. 4 Advanced mechanical pipe cutter Mechanical Pipe Cutter The Baker Hughes Mechanical Pipe Cutter (MPC ) tool severs a wide range of tubing, casing, and drillpipe without using explosives or chemicals. This new technology cuts standard and exotic metal pipes under some of the harshest conditions. Typical cuts occur in less than 10 minutes, getting jobs quickly back on track. The tool is designed for environments up to 392 F (200 C) and at 20,000 psi (137.9 MPa) and cuts pipe ranging from 2 7 / 8 in. (73 mm) to 7 in. (177.8 mm). The advanced design enables it to cut a wide variety of tubulars, including most weights, grades, and alloys. The tool is programmable to optimize its operation based on the type of cut. The slim 2 1 / 8 -in. (54-mm) and the 3 1 / 4 -in. (82.5-mm) diameter tools are also easily transported for quick offshore or remote deployment. The MPC tool can run on all electric wireline units when used in conjunction with the Baker Hughes small cased-hole system. Length Tool Size Electronics Mandrel Pipe Cutting Sizes 2 1 /8-in. MPC 9.83 ft (3 m) 8.33 ft (2.54 m) 2 7 /8-in. to 4 1 /2-in. 3 1 /4-in. MPC 9.83 ft (3 m) 8.33 ft (2.54 m) 4 in. to 7 in. 2 1 /8-in. tool Standard rating: 392 F (200 C) 20,000 psi (137.9 MPa) Illustration of the pipe s smooth cutting edge left by the MPC tool. Pictured is the 2 7 /8-in. (73-mm) L-80, and Chrome 13 pipe. Baker Hughes offers advanced jet cutter, chemical cutter, severing tool, and mechanical pipe-cutter technology, which can safely and effectively sever virtually any size, weight, or grade of downhole tubing, coiled tubing, casing, or drillpipe. Contact your local Baker Hughes representative for information on special-application cutters specific to your well conditions. 5 Free-point services Free-point indicators Baker Hughes offers the most advanced and complete line of free-point indicator systems for the wide range of pipestring types, diameters, and downhole conditions. These instruments are used to accurately locate the depth where the pipestring is free, partially stuck, or completely stuck. Highly sensitive measurements of both stretch and torque movement in a stuck pipestring transmit from the instrument through a conductor cable to a surface panel. A collar log is also run in conjunction with free-point tools for positive depth control. Field personnel are properly trained in the use of freepoint indicator tools at the pipe-recovery training facility in Grand Prairie, Texas. A specially constructed test well permits torque and stretch of a pipestring, simulating well conditions. New instruments or improvements to existing instruments can also be tested at this training facility. Motorized Anchor Magnetic Anchor Bow-spring Anchor Anchor type system Diameter Length Pressure rating Temperature rating in. mm ft m psi MPa F C Motorized 1 3 / , Magnetic 1 7 / , Bow spring 5/ , Bow spring , Bow spring 1 5 / , Back-off and cutting services String-shot back-off Once the free point of a stuck pipestring is determined, the stringshot back-off service can be used to remove the free portion from the well. The string-shot back-off procedure applies left-hand torque to the stuck pipestring. The string shot is then positioned at the predetermined pipe joint and detonated. The explosion produces a similar effect as an intense hammer blow and allows the joint to be unscrewed at the proper connection. Several factors, such as pipe size, weight and condition, back-off depth, mud or borehole fluid weight, and well temperature, are carefully considered when making up the proper string-shot assembly. Collar Locator Firing Sub Chemical cutters Chemical-cutter technology is another area where Baker Hughes R&D continues to excel. For years, the chemical-cutter service has been expanded to successfully sever a wide range of coiled tubing, tubing, casing, and drillpipe string sizes in a fraction of a second without damaging an adjacent string. With recent advances in chemical-cutter technology, this service can now be used to cut corrosion-resistant alloy (CRA) tubulars safely and without distortion. The flare-free and burr-free cut allows easy engagement of an overshot, reducing the time and expense of subsequent fishing operations, bringing production back online with minimum downtime. Baker Hughes specializes in solving clients difficult or unusual chemical-cutter requirements with modeling and simulation tests. Modeling the well and borehole conditions and simulating the chemical-cutter performance in the laboratory before going to the field can significantly reduce mis-runs, noncuts, lost production, and rig time. String-shot back-off tool U pper Propellant Sub Slip Sub Lower Propellant Sub Chemical Cylinder Ignition Chamber Cutting Head Bull Plug Fishing operations can be initiated without additional delay or expense because the chemical cutter provides a flare-free and burr-free fish top. Jet cutters Jet cutters are available for severing practically any size downhole tubing, drillpipe, or casing. The cutting action is produced by a circular-shaped charge, which typically leaves a flare on the severed pipestring. To perform subsequent pipe recovery operations, it is necessary to smooth the top end of the fish with an internal mill, which is usually run with an overshot. Jet cutter Metal-severing tools For difficult pipe recovery situations, a number of metal-severing tools are available to cut heavy-walled pipestrings. The metal severing tool uses a dual-firing detonation method to produce two wavefronts that collide, severing heavy-walled pipe for quick recovery. 3½-in. pipe severed with the jet cutter. Redressing is typically needed on the cut before fishing. 7 Disclaimer of Liability: This information is provided for general information purposes only and is believed to be accurate as of the date hereof; however, Baker Hughes Incorporated and its affiliates do not make any warranties or representations of any kind regarding the information and disclaim all express and implied warranties or representations to the fullest extent permissible by law, including those of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or use, title, non-infringement, accuracy, correctness or completeness of the information provided herein. All information is furnished as is and without any license to distribute. The user agrees to assume all liabilities related to the use of or reliance on such information. BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED AND ITS AFFILIATES SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, EXEMPLARY OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES FROM ANY CAUSE WHATSOEVER INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS NEGLIGENCE Baker Hughes Incorporated. All rights reserved V2 08/2012
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