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  A valve is a mechanical device that regulates the flow of fluids (either gases, fluidised solids, slurries or liquids) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are used in a myriad of industrial, military, commercial, and residential applications. There are many different types of valves:Ball valve, which is good for on/off control; Butterfly valve, particularly in large pipes; Gate valve, mainly for on/off control;Globe valve, which is good for regulating flow;chec valve or !on return valve, allows the fluid to pass in one direction only;# pressure relief valve or safety valve operates automatically at a set differential pressure to correct a potentially dangerous situation, typically over pressure. $igh purity valves, are flow control devices that meet the industry criteria for purity of materials and design. Ball Valves bac to valves A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. hen the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is bloc!ed. The handle position lets you see the valve#s position. The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to mae it more durable.There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.# full port ball valve has an oversi%ed ball so that the hole in the ball is the same si%e as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. &low is unrestricted. # standard port ball valve is usually less e'pensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. &low through this valve is one pipe si%e smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in slightly restricted flow. )n reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe si%es smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in restricted flow. *anually operated ball valves can often be closed +uicly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. ome ball valves are e+uipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control. # pneumatic flow control valve is also e+uipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valveopening accordingly.  There are also three way ball valves, with a T shaped hole through the middle. -ith such a valve the flow can be directed to either one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely. Ball Valves bac to valves A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. hen the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is bloc!ed. The handle position lets you see the valve#s position. The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to mae it more durable.There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.# full port ball valve has an oversi%ed ball so that the hole in the ball is the same si%e as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. &low is unrestricted. # standard port ball valve is usually less e'pensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. &low through this valve is one pipe si%e smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in slightly restricted flow. )n reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe si%es smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in restricted flow. *anually operated ball valves can often be closed +uicly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. ome ball valves are e+uipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control. # pneumatic flow control valve is also e+uipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valveopening accordingly.There are also three way ball valves, with a T shaped hole through the middle. -ith such a valve the flow can be directed to either one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely. Ball Valves bac to valves A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. hen the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is bloc!ed. The handle position lets you see the valve#s position.  The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to mae it more durable.There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.# full port ball valve has an oversi%ed ball so that the hole in the ball is the same si%e as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. &low is unrestricted. # standard port ball valve is usually less e'pensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. &low through this valve is one pipe si%e smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in slightly restricted flow. )n reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe si%es smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in restricted flow. *anually operated ball valves can often be closed +uicly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. ome ball valves are e+uipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control. # pneumatic flow control valve is also e+uipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valveopening accordingly.There are also three way ball valves, with a T shaped hole through the middle. -ith such a valve the flow can be directed to either one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely. Ball Valves bac to valves A ball valve (often called a quarter turn valve) is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. hen the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is bloc!ed. The handle position lets you see the valve#s position. The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, and/or plastic. The ball may be chrome plated to mae it more durable.There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.# full port ball valve has an oversi%ed ball so that the hole in the ball is the same si%e as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. &low is unrestricted. # standard port ball valve is usually less e'pensive, but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. &low through this valve is one pipe si%e smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in slightly restricted flow. )n reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is two pipe si%es smaller than the valve(s pipe si%e resulting in restricted flow.  *anually operated ball valves can often be closed +uicly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. ome ball valves are e+uipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control. # pneumatic flow control valve is also e+uipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valveopening accordingly.There are also three way ball valves, with a T shaped hole through the middle. -ith such a valve the flow can be directed to either one or the other or both sides or be closed off completely. $hec! Valves bac to valves# chec valve is a mechanical device, a valve, that normally only allows fluid to flow through it in one direction. # double chec valve is often used as a bacflow prevention device to eep potentially contaminated water from siphoning bac into municipal water supply lines. # clapper valve is a type of chec valve used in or with firefighting, and has a hinged gate often with a spring urging it shut that will only remain open in the out flowing direction. Some types of irrigation sprinklers and drip irrigation emitters have small check valves built into them to keep the lines from draining when the system is shut off. %ressure &elief Valves bac to valves# pressure relief valve opens to release e'cess pressure when the pressure is too high to protect the vessel or other e+uipment fromover pressuri%ation.# relief valve is lie a safety valve in that it is for li+uids only. # safety valve is for gases only.0efinition:1ipe is a hollow 2tube2 used for conveying products and pressure. The products include fluids, gas, slurry, powders, pellets and more. The pressure is hydraulic power. -e usually designate the 2tube2 as pipe in the applicable line class but the definition includesany similar component designed as tubing, which is used for the same application.$istory:3ne of the earliest methods of conveying fluids in the history of manind was by pipe. The earliest pipe on record was the use of bamboo for moving small +uantities of water as a continues flow. #s man progressed, he began using hollow logs for his piping needs. 1robably the first recorded use of metal in piping systems was the use of lead or bron%e during the 2Bron%e2 age.0uring the e'cavation at 1ompeii, complete water distribution systems fabricated from lead have been uncovered. These systems, include probably the first use of metal plug valves, are still worable.-ithout piping our modern civili%ation and their attendant conveniences could not e'ist. Today piping is used in almost every aspect of our lives. 3ur drining water is produced in plants full of piping and then comes to us through a vast networ of pipes. The waste from our homes and businesses flows away through another networ of pipes and is then treated in a plant full of piping. The fuel we use for travel or for heating was collected, processed and distributed using pipe. !o mater what you thin about, power, food, paint, medicine, paper products, plastics, chemicals, and many more are all made in plants full of piping. 3ur safety is also dependent on the piping in the fire water systems in our neighborhoods and buildings.*aterials of construction: The various inds of material from which pipe is, or can be, made is proved to be endless; among them are the more common carbon steel, along with chromes, stainless steel, iron, brass, copper, lead, aluminum, glass, rubber and various types of plastic material. 3ver the years some of these materials have been combined to form lined pipe systems. These include carbon steel pipe lined with glass, carbon steel pipe that is lined with various plastics; carbon steel pipe lined with concrete. 4ach one, plain or lined has certain advantages and disadvantages. *any things enter into maing a choice of materials. #mong the most important of theseare commodity, pressure, temperature, si%e, ease of assembly availability and economics.
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