1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 5 2. Life in the Oceans “ This is the fascinating stuff!” 3.…
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  • 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 5
  • 2. Life in the Oceans “ This is the fascinating stuff!”
  • 3. Physical Factors Affecting Life <ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved Gases </li></ul>
  • 4. Light <ul><li>Necessary for photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Longer wavelengths travel deeper Why is the water blue? </li></ul><ul><li>Zones : Photic zone, disphotic zone, aphotic zone </li></ul>
  • 5. Temperature <ul><li>Affects metabolic rates </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms : “cold blooded” </li></ul><ul><li>Endotherms : constant internal temperature </li></ul>
  • 6. Dissolved Nutrients <ul><li>Often provide upper limits to primary productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen and sometimes phosphorus are the most important limiting nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas are the most likely to have abundant nutrients </li></ul>
  • 7. Salinity <ul><li>Organisms are adapted to a particular range of salinities </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in salinity can damage membranes, alter protein structure, and affect the buoyancy of organisms </li></ul>
  • 8. Dissolved Gases <ul><li>Carbon Dioxide: abundant in ocean—seldom a limiting factor </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen may be a limiting factor, particularly during nighttime hours </li></ul>
  • 9. Primary Productivity <ul><li>Binding of carbon into organic material through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton: 90-96% of total </li></ul><ul><li>Seaweeds: 2-5% </li></ul><ul><li>Chemosynthetic Organisms: 2-5% </li></ul>
  • 12. Global Primary Productivity 0 450 g C/m 2 /yr
  • 13. Trophic (Feeding) Relationships <ul><li>Three hundred trout are needed to support one man for a year. The trout, in turn, must consume 90,000 frogs, that must consume 27 million grasshoppers that live off of 1,000 tons of grass. - G. Tyler Miller, Jr., American Chemist (1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs : primary producers </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs: consume other organisms </li></ul>
  • 14. Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day… Teach him how to fish and you feed him for a lifetime! <ul><li>Will you help GIVE or TEACH ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you aware? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Help someone help themselves this Holiday Season! </li></ul><ul><li>Give a gift without expecting anything back! </li></ul>
  • 15. Help Build a fish pond! <ul><li>Tilapia, a firm white fish, grows rapidly and can be easily cared for by youth or other trained community members. Since surplus fish can be sold to help pay for children's school fees or much needed health care, your gift can boost nutrition levels and improve overall quality of life for up to 50 people. </li></ul>
  • 16. Just pennies to us… <ul><li>Please consider donating just 100 pennies (one little dollar) this Christmas Season to help us build a fish pond for others in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Drop your coins in the collection in Marine Biology and we’ll donate it to World Vision on behalf of our class this season. </li></ul><ul><li>THANKS A BUNCH! </li></ul>
  • 17. Zones in the Ocean Hadal Zone Abyssal Zone Bathyal Zone Subtidal Zone Littoral Zone
  • 19. Considerations for life in the pelagic zone <ul><li>Maintaining vertical position </li></ul><ul><li>Neritic Zone : nutrients tend to be more abundant, but pollution may be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanic Zone : nutrients usually not as abundant, leading to lower levels of primary productivity and requiring consumers to travel longer distances in search of food </li></ul>
  • 20. Considerations for life in the benthic zone <ul><li>Littoral Zone : exposure to air (dessication) </li></ul><ul><li>Sublittoral Zone: strong waves & currents </li></ul><ul><li>Bathyal, Abyssal, Hadal Zones : darkness, lack of abundant food source </li></ul>
  • 21. The Pelagic Community <ul><li>Organisms live suspended in the water column </li></ul><ul><li>2 Categories : </li></ul><ul><li>Plankton : cannot swim at all, or not strongly enough to move against waves and currents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meroplankton – plankton only part of life (baby stage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holoplankton – plankton entire life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nekton : swim actively </li></ul>
  • 22. Microbial Life in the Ocean <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton – Plant-like protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular algae, Diatoms and Dinoflagellates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zooplankton – Animal-like protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoans, Foraminiferans, Radiolarians and Ciliates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul>
  • 23. Bacteria <ul><li>“ Regular” Bacteria – Domain of Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaroyotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay and recycle nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteria = “blue-green algae”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “epiphytes” if live on seaweed. </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Bacteria <ul><li>“ Extreme” Bacteria – Domain of Archae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live near hydrothermal vents 250F, sulfur springs, saline lakes, acid locations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremophiles = “lover of extremes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis not photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Sulfate or Methane as energy source to make “food” for themselves since they are autotrophs (self feeders) </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Autotrophs <ul><li>Make their own organic compounds (food) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Producer = phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophic = use light for photosynthesis (usually green) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemoautotrophic = derive energy not from light but from sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or iron compounds. </li></ul>
  • 27. Heterotrophs <ul><li>Eat other things </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Respiration =getting energy out of food uses oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Respiration = energy without oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Many are nitrogen fixers = convert nitrogen gas into a form that plants can use to grow. </li></ul>
  • 29. Unicellular Algae <ul><li>Their own Kingdom = Protista </li></ul><ul><li>A very large group that are eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no roots, stems, leaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples are diatoms, Dinoflagellates, and protozoans. </li></ul>
  • 30. Seasonal Phytoplankton Biomass
  • 31. Types of Phytoplankton <ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul>
  • 33. White Cliffs of Dover, England Small Diatoms “ Ginormous” Cliffs of Diatoms
  • 34. Diatoms <ul><li>Glassy 2 piece ornate shell </li></ul><ul><li>Main primary producers </li></ul><ul><li>12,000 living species </li></ul><ul><li>Can be toxic to fish and humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Dead shells pile = diatomaceous earth, (used for temp./sound insulation and filtration or toothpaste) </li></ul><ul><li>shop for diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous cliffs in Maryland </li></ul>
  • 35. Types of Phytoplankton <ul><li>Dinoflagellates </li></ul>
  • 37. Dinoflagellates <ul><li>A common plankton with two flagella. </li></ul><ul><li>1,200 species </li></ul><ul><li>May “bloom” to form red tides. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are BIOLUMINSESCENT = glow in the dark ** Very cool ** </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 38. Types of Phytoplankton <ul><li>Coccolithophores </li></ul>
  • 39. Zooplankton <ul><li>Main primary consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Graze on phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Holoplankton = all life as plankton or </li></ul><ul><li>Meroplankton = part of life as plankton </li></ul>
  • 40. Types of Zooplankton <ul><li>Foraminifera </li></ul>
  • 41. Radiolarians
  • 42. A planktonic ciliate
  • 43. Other types of Zooplankton <ul><li>Copepods: crustaceans that account for 70% of this group </li></ul>
  • 44. Types of Zooplankton <ul><li>Jellyfish </li></ul>
  • 45. Nekton: Vertebrates <ul><li>Cartilaginous fish </li></ul>Sharks Rays
  • 46. Nekton: Vertebrates <ul><li>Bony fish: these include the vast majority of familiar fish, such as tuna and cod </li></ul>
  • 47. Nekton: Vertebrates <ul><li>Mammals (e.g. whales); birds (e.g. penguins); reptiles (e.g. sea turtles) </li></ul>
  • 48. Nekton: Invertebrates <ul><li>Mollusks: Octopi, Squid </li></ul>                            
  • 49. Nekton: Invertebrates <ul><li>Arthropods: shrimp, krill </li></ul>
  • 50. The Benthic Community <ul><li>Organisms that live on, or in, the ocean bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Sessile organisms : anchored to the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Motile organisms : can move freely </li></ul><ul><li>Both heterotrophs and autotrophs, such as seaweeds </li></ul>
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