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Population Ms

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marking scheme- population
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  1. (a)  Baseline study:  [2 max]  a baseline study seeks to measure existing conditions prior to theimplementation of a project in order to have a standard of comparison once the project is completed; baseline studies are used to determine potential impacts onthe environment of a project;  Biotic :  [2 max]  use of transects to determine cover/abundance of fauna and flora;use of quadrats to measure species abundance and diversity(application of diversity indices);use of Lincoln ndex/capture!mark!release!recapture todetermine numbers of different animal species;determination of biomass by removal and drying of plant tissue;  Accept other reasonable answers. Abiotic :  [2 max]  testing of ater for various parameters ( e.g. nitrates/dissolvedsolids/#$%/%$) using testing kits and/or electrodes of various types;air speed and direction using anemometers;determination of soil p& using universal indicators;determination of ater flo throughout year using flo eirs; 6 max  Accept other reasonable answers.  (b)the ecological footprint ill increase; (must be included for full marks). availability of cash leads to greater purchasing po er;consequent increase in consumer good acquisition; production of these goods requires energy that may release '$   thusincreasing footprint;money allo s people to buy more animal protein from grainfed animals so the footprint increases;as people enter a consumer society and turn a ay fromsubsistence level lifestyles footprint increases;money may allo access to better homes resulting in lessneed for locally produced fire ood thus decreasing footprint; 6 max  Accept other reasonable answers.  (c)reuse recycling and re!manufacture reduce need for ra material;reduces stress on a finite resource;aluminum requires far less energy to recycle than to produce; produces less aste;employs people (possibly no net loss of employment);creates environmental a areness;reduce need to intervene rivers for hydroelectric po er; 5 max  Accept other reasonable answers. Expression of ideas  [3 max]  [20]  1  2. (a)use of global resources at a rate that allo s natural regeneration;and minimi*es damage to the environment; Gie credit if concept of replenishable capital is mentioned. 2  (b) Gie full credit for either a brief discussion of seeral humanactions or a full discussion of one. !redit should be gien for use of examples case studies. Allow  [5]   for how resource has been managed unsustainablyand  [5]   for conse#uences for ecosystems.   soil resources human actions could include: overgra*ing;deforestation;unsustainable irrigation;land pollution;acid deposition; 5 max $r a more detailed discussion of one or more of these.   conse#uences could include: soil degradation;loss of soil structure;desertification;soil erosion;loss of organic matter and consequences for primary productivity;effects of acid deposition on nutrient content of soils;loss of soil organisms; 5 max   water resources human actions could include abstraction of ground ater; pollution;eutrophication;increased demand for ater; astage of ater resources; $r a detailed discussion of one or more of these + 5 max   conse#uences could include: loss of habitat;role of ater in soil formation and consequences for soil formationif ater shortage occurs ( e.g.  increased rates of salinisation;increased rates of soil erosion as ater table is lo ered);eutrophication consequences on aquatic ecosystem;impact of pollutants on aquatic fauna ( e.g.  mutations progressiveconcentration of pollutants along the food chain);impact of pollutants on flora e.g.  impact of acid rain on coniferous forests; 5 max  2   (c) Soil resources  suggest possible soil conseration methods: soil conditioners; ind reduction techniques;cultivation techniques;efforts to stop plo ing marginal lands;crop rotation; 5 max !redit should be gien if reference is made to  specific farming systems.   OR Water resources  suggest more sustainable practices% reducing ater use;recycling;metering ater; pollution monitoring or control; e.g.   ith respect to eutrophication; 5 max !redit should be gien if reference is made to  specific case studies. [20]  3. (a)natural capital is a term sometimes used by economists for naturalresources that if appropriately managed can produce a ,naturalincome- of goods and services;the natural capital of a forest might provide a continuing naturalincome of timber game ater and recreation;sustainability . using global resources at a rate that allo snatural regeneration and minimi*es damage to the environment; e.g. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate thatwill be replaced by natural growth might be considered todemonstrate sustainability;Wilson is advocating that countries should adopt this approachwhen assessing their resource base; 5  Answers which do not refer to the statement should be awarded [4 max]  .  3  (b) Water [7 max]   or [6 max]  water is replenishable natural capital (it is non  .living but is dependenton the solar engine for rene al); but globally it is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished;only a small fraction of the arth0s ater supply is available as areadily usable resource for humans;there are gro ing demands on ater resources as populations increase;societies become more affluent and expectations rise;irrigation industriali*ation and domestic demand are all increasing; ithdra al of ater from underground aquifers is often occurringat a faster rate than it can be replenished;this has led to falling ater tables;degradation of ater supplies through pollution reduces theamounts hich are available to us;global arming may disrupt rainfall patterns and supplies and makematters orse;a lot of ater is asted or used inefficiently; Give credit for named examples and case studies.Soil [6 max] or [7 max]  soils are renewable in that they will regenerate naturally givenenough time;however, misuse of soils by a variety of human activities is leading todegradation of soil resources at a faster rate than they can cope with; examples of unsustainable practice with regard to soils include :overgrazing  . here the trampling and feeding of livestock leads toloss of vegetation and exposure of underlying soil;deforestation . removing vegetation;overcultivation . leading to a loss of soil fertility and structure;all leave top soil vulnerable to erosion by ind and ater;excessive irrigation can lead to salini*ation and toxification; 13 max Expression of ideas [2 max]  [20]  4. (a)(i)feedback that tends to damp downneutralizecounteractany deviation from an e!uilibrium, and promotes stability; 1 (ii)feedback that amplifiesincreases change (it leads toe ponential deviation away from e!uilibrium); 1  (b)most ecosystems contain inbuilt checks and balances;without internal balance an ecosystem would spiral out of control;without negative feedback no ecosystem could be self#sustaining; 1 max  
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