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Population Old Ms

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  1. (a)(i)population plotted on y-axis and time on x-axis, at a suitable scale,so that lines fill at least half available width and height  [1]  ; both axes correctly labelled with quantities and units  [1]  ;lines start, finish and intersect at correct position and are labelledor identified by a key  [1]  ; 3 max 1! 1# 1$ % % % year % ! # $ 1 1% 1! 1#    p   o   p   u    l   a    t    i   o   n     /   m    i    l    l    i   o   n   s &'&'  (ii)ountry B  as rate of population growth is greatercurvegradient steeperexponential curve  [1]  * 1 max  Accept population B not stabilised OWTTE.  (b)(i)+eveloping 1% million (accept answers in range1. /1#. million) [1]  ;developed 260 million (accept answers in range230  /% million) [1]  . 2 max  (ii)Cohorts that will soon become of childbearing age [1]   /  economically active [1]   /  entering workforce [1]  . 1 max  1  (iii)  Allow [1]   for difference and [1]   for its significance 0 2  DifferenceSignificance igher proportion of people of reprod!ctive age in developing co!ntries [1]  eveloping age#se$ pyramid is triang!lar% developed is rectang!lar [1]  &op!lation increase will be greatest in developing co!ntries [1]  ; greater press!re on reso!rces from rapidly increasing pop!lation [1]  igher proportion of people live to middle#old agein developing co!ntries than in developed co!ntries [1]  'etter health care#living conditions in developed co!ntries [1]  ore males than females thro!gho!t age ranges in developing co!ntries% less consistent difference in developed [1]  emale infanticide may be higher in developing co!ntries#women die in childbirth more often in developing co!ntries#data may be inacc!rate#hard to collect [1]  Credit other valid responses. 4 max [11]  2. (a)&op!lation B * as ecological footprint is smaller than pop!lation [1]   /  are living s!stainably [1]  . 1 max  (b)  Award [1]   for each two correct items.Per capita C+ 2  prod!ction#  per capita land re,!irement for absorbing waste C+ 2  from fossil f!els#rate of absorption of C+ 2  by local vegetation per !nit area#  per capita foodcons!mption#rate of food prod!ction locally per !nit area#pop!lation n!mber. (If candidate states total population CO 2   production and food consumption, then population numer is superfluous.!Other correct answers are acceptale ut those aove are on s llaus. 2 max  (c)  An two of# lower latit!des  / higher net productivity in localvegetation / so smaller ecological footprint for the same  2 o!tp!t [1]   /  low latit!des may provide better conditions for food prod!ction  / so smaller ecological footprint to supplysame food production [1]   /  higher latit!des have lower temperat!res  / greater need for energy sources / greater  2 wastes  / larger ecological footprint [1]  . 2  (d)&op!lation A   [1]  ;beca!se it takes a greater area than that available to s!stainablys!pply its reso!rces [1]  . 2   2   (e)(i)  Allow an two of# one pop!lation might !se intensive farming techni,!es [1]   /  monoc!lt!re [1]   /  !se of fertili-ers [1]   /  pesticides [1]  .  Allow for $C% from (a! and (d!. 2 max  (ii)intensive farming techni,!es wo!ld lead to greater foodprod!ction per !nit area [1]  ; so smaller footprint [1]   /  eating more food or more meat wo!ld re,!ire moreagric!lt!ral prod!ction [1]  ; so larger footprint [1]    +//. 2 max  (f) &ustainailit up to [2]  fossil f!el !se is !ns!stainable as a non1renewable reso!rce [1]   /  as rate of cons!mption  rate of renewal [1]  ;hydroelectricity  / sustainable as replenishable [1]   /  water cyclecontin!es thro!gh inp!t of solar energy [1]  ; Impacts up to [2]  fossil f!els  /  2  release increases global warming [1]   /  +  '  and 4+  '   ca!sing acid rain [1]   /  4+  '   ca!sing o-one depletion [1]  ;hydroelectricity  / building of dams floods and destroysecosystems [1]   /  red!ces downstream flow rates [1]   /  red!cesdownstream flood plains [1]   /  blocks fish migration [1]  . 4 max [15]  3. (a) escription [1]  ;  e'planation [2]  . 4!mber of species inverselyproportional to altit!de [1]   /  5ower the altit!de% more bird species [1]  ;at higher altit!des% temperat!re decreases so less 4&& and so lessfood for birds [1]  ; less species at 3000 m and over as there is lessland at these heights [1]   /  less ecological niches at altit!de so lessdiversity [1]   /  low biological prod!ctivity of high altit!deecosystems [1]    0  / m may include sea birds [1]   /  anyreasonable e$planation [1]  3 max  (b)abitat diversity  / the range of different habitats per unit area [1]  ;pecies diversity  / the heterogeneity of species in a given area [1]  2  (c)  Award [1]   for each of two reasons.e.g. beca!se it is morally right to do so#aesthetic reasons#beca!seh!mans !se other species for medicine#crops#food#dr!gs#reso!rces#beca!se the gene pool is red!ced if species becomee$tinct#some !ses of species not yet discovered 2 max  )  (d)  Award [1]   for each of three reasonale characteristics.e.g. large eno!gh area for a viable pop!lation of top carnivores [1]   /  in one block of land#water that is not spread o!t b!t compact inshape [1]   /  minimise edge*area ratio [1]   /  corridors between smaller areas [1]   /  legislation#p!rchase of land to protect it [1]   /  agreementof h!mans living in or aro!nd the area [1]   /  minimise harmf!ledge effects [1]   /  variety of habitats [1]  3 max  (e)  Award mar*s for an reasonale changes descried (positiveor negative!.e.g. increase in landscape variation to increase range of habitats [1]   /  planting of more trees#b!shes [1]   /  digging of ponds [1]   /  activemanagement to prevent deterioration [1]   /  ed!cation of h!mansliving nearby [1]  or  spreading of e$otic species from c!ltivated areas#townsnearby ( e.g. weeds% feral cats) [1]   /  farm land r!noff ca!sing water poll!tion [1]   /  dist!rbance of wildlife by h!mans [1]   /  contaminationof forest ecosystems by pesticide [1]   /  b!rning and developmentof fire1tolerant species and ecosystems [1]  . 2 max  (f)  Award [1]   for rief description of named area and up to [2]   for management strategies. 3 [15]  4. (a)(i)China; 1 (ii)200 ; 1  +
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