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portuguese.rtf

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Portuguese alphabet From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Portuguese alphabet consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic atin alphabet! a#uscule Forms $also called uppercase or capital letters% & ' ( ) * F + , I - ./ 0 O P 1 2 S T 3 4 W/ 5 6/ 7 inuscule Forms $also called lo8ercase or small letters% a b c d e f g h i # k/ l m n o p 9 r s t u : 8/ ; y/ 0ote! The letters ., W and 6 8ere included in the alphabet used in 'raacau, Portugal and =:e countries in &frica
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  Portuguese alphabetFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Portuguese alphabet consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic atin alphabet! a#uscule Forms $also called uppercase or capital letters%&'()*F+I-./ 0OP1ST34W/5/7 inuscule Forms $also called lo8ercase or small letters%abcdefghi#k/lmnop9rstu:8/;y/<0ote! The letters ., W and  8ere included in the alphabet used in 'ra<il, *ast  Timor, acau, Portugal and =:e countries in &frica 8hen the >??@ Portugueseanguage Orthographic &greement 8ent into legal eAect, since -anuary >, 2@@?BC>D o8e:er, they 8ere used before >?>> $see the article on spelling reform in Portugal%BIn addition, the follo8ing characters 8ith diacritics are used! E, GH, J, KL, MN, , QR, , UV, X, YZ, [\B These are not, ho8e:er, treated as independentletters in collation, nor do they ha:e entries of their o8n in Portuguese dictionariesB When t8o 8ords diAer only in the presence or absence of a diacritic, the one 8ithout it is collated =rstB The trema on ] 8as used in 'ra<ilian Portuguese up to )ecember ^>, 2@@_B With the >??@ Portuguese anguage Orthographic &greement that 8ent into eAect in 'ra<il on -anuary >, 2@@?, the diaeresis may only appear in borro8ed 8ords, in personal names, and in 8ords deri:ed from themB This article contains IP& phonetic symbolsB Without proper rendering support, you may see 9uestion marks, bo;es, or other symbols instead of 3nicode charactersB(ontents ChideD > etter names and pronunciations  >B> 0otes2 (onsonants2B> )iacritics and basic digraphs2B2 Silent letters^ 4o8els^B> )iacritics^B2 )iphthongs^B^ 0asali<ation^B` Personal names` See also eferencesB> 0otesB2 'ibliography6 *;ternal linksetter names and pronunciationsCeditDOnly the most fre9uent sounds are gi:en belo8, since a listing of all cases and e;ceptions 8ould be too cumbersomeB Portuguese is a pluricentric language, and the pronunciation of some of the letters is diAerent in *uropean Portuguese $*P% and 'ra<ilian Portuguese $'P%B &part from these :ariations, the pronunciation of most consonants is fairly straightfor8ard, andsimilar to French or (atalan pronunciationB Only the consonants r, s, ;, <, the digraphs ch, lh, nh, rr, and the :o8els may re9uire special attention from *nglish speakersB&lthough many letters ha:e more than one pronunciation, their phonetic :alue is often predictable from their position 8ithin a 8ord this is normally the case for the consonants $e;cept ;%B Since only =:e letters are a:ailable to 8rite the fourteen :o8el sounds of Portuguese, the orthography of the :o8elsis more comple;, but e:en in this case pronunciation is predictable to a degreeB .no8ing the main inectional paradigms of Portuguese can be helpful in this regardB  In the follo8ing table and in the remainder of this article, the phrase at the end of a syllable can be understood as before a consonant, or at the end of a 8ordB For the letter r, at the start of a syllable means at the beginning of a 8ord, or after l, n, sB For letters 8ith more than one common pronunciation, their most common phonetic :alues are gi:en on the left side of the semicolon sounds to the right of it occur only in a limited number of positions 8ithin a 8ordB Sounds separated by  are allophones or dialectal :ariantsB The names of the letters are masculineBetter0amePhonetic:aluesSpellingPronunciation&aaa,  nb ^'bbRbeb(ccRsek s nb >)ddRded  CdD nb 2*e $' or *P% or R $some dialects of 'P only%, ee, , i nb ^, j, , iFffe= $'P%, fj $*P%f+ggR $'P or *P% or guR $*P only%e, e $*P%  nb >haganati:ely silent,  in loan8ords nb `Iiiii nb ^ -##otat.kc $'P% or capa $*P%ka, kapnb lleli $'P%, lj $*P%l  Cq  8D nb 6 mmemi $'P%, mj $*P%m nb   0nneni $'P%, nj $*P%n nb OoV $*P or 'P% or X $some dialects of 'P only%, oo, , u nb ^PppRpep199uRkekrrre $*P and 'P% or rR $mostly *P%i $'P%, j, e $*P%, nb _Ssssesi $'P%, sj $*P%s, < nb ?, ,  TttRtet  CtvD nb 23uuuu nb ^4::R:e:W8dblio $'P% or dHblio $*P%  duplo :Rdawxu $'P%, dwl#u $*P%nb 5;;is $'P% or chis $*P%i  is, ks, <, s, S ypsilon $'P or *P% or i grego $*P%ipsilZ $'P%, ipsjln $*P%nb 7<<R<e< SPortuguese &lphabet *03@!@@isten to the alphabet recited by a nati:e speaker from 'ra<ilB 0ote! The alphabet is spoken in a 'ra<ilian dialect 8here the * is pronounced as Problems playing this =lez See media helpB0otesCeditD{ 'efore the letters e, i, y, or 8ith the cedillaB{ &llophonically aAricated before the sound i $spelled i, or sometimes e%, in 'PB{ ay become an appro;imant as a form of :o8el reduction 8hen unstressedbefore or after another :o8elB Words such as bVia and proa are pronounced Cb#B#D and Cpo8B8DBC2D{ Silent at the start or at the end of a 8ordB &lso part of the digraphs ch, lh,
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