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Post earthquake building inspection practices. First degree rapid usability evaluation

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Post earthquake building inspection practices First degree rapid usability evaluation After an earthquake, an operation of emergency inspection of buildings is carried out. The buildings were inspected
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Post earthquake building inspection practices First degree rapid usability evaluation After an earthquake, an operation of emergency inspection of buildings is carried out. The buildings were inspected in order to be classified in categories in regard to their damage and usability. Primary objectives: Protect human life Save properties Devastating earthquakes are not rare in Greece, therefore much experience on building inspection procedure has been accumulated. The whole approach to earthquake disaster response and reconstruction was drastically reviewed after the 1978 Thessaloniki earthquake. It was the first time that a modern urban environment experienced a disastrous earthquake in Greece. Overview of post-earthquake building practices in Greece. The buildings were inspected in order to be classified in three categories in regard to their damage and usability. In 1984 a integral and more complete post earthquake procedure was introduced by EPPO for a nationwide use. EPPO revised the post- earthquake inspection procedure in 1996, adopting two degrees of inspection. First Phase: First Degree rapid usability evaluation Second Phase: Second degree inspection performed only to the building posted yellow or red during the first degree inspection or those whose occupants or owners appealed against the outcome of the first degree inspection The aims of the first-degree inspection are: To identify as soon as possible all buildings that are safe to occupy and use To examine if there is an immediate danger due to building collapse To propose safety measures for the protection of the occupants or the public To assess as soon as possible after the earthquake the number of building that are not usable and provide the number of required temporary housing units. To present a reliable overview of the damage to the building stock in the area that will allow authorities to take relief measures. To support future scientific studies on building response and vulnerability.these studies may lead to revaluation of existing codes and construction practices. To will identify frequent causes of damage, so that potential rehabilitation plans may take into account such assessments. Since the first degree inspection takes place in theimmediate post-event period characterized by: aftershocks limited personnel resources and urgent needs the inspection should be as brief as possible. Therefore, the inspection form is kept as simple as possible including only limited data entries. PREFECTURE Number of inspection form... DEPARTMENT.. Number of inspection team : T... FORM FOR A FIRST DEGREE RAPID USABILITY EVALUATION A. BUILDING INFORMATION (IDENTIFICATION) Address... Municipality/Community Police Department. Owner... Phone Number.. Building manager... Phone Number... B. BUILDING DESCRIPTION Number of stories Number of residential units Year of construction Occupancy Residential Parking Public Services Industrial Commercial School Church Agricultural Building Offices Hotel Storage Other Type of Structure Reinforced concrete structure Soft story Yes No Masonry bearing walls and floors made Stories below ground Yes No of reinforced concrete or steel or wood The building is in use Yes No Mixed system (both R.C. and masonry vertical members) Other C.BUILDING USABILITY CLASSIFICATION Inspection from outside Inspection from both outside and inside Usable (posted in green) Temporarily unusable (posted in yellow) Unusable/Dangerous (posted in red) Occupancy permitted The building should not be used on a continuous basis until a more detailed evaluation will be performed during a second degree inspection.all necessary safety measures should be taken immediately. Imminent danger of sudden collapse.entry is absolutely prohibited. All necessary safety measures should be taken immediately. A more detailed evaluation of this building will be performed from structural engineers during a second degree inspection. The evaluation applies to: all the building parts of the building Number of homeless households Inspected buildings are classified in three categories of usability: 1st Category Usable (Posted in green) Buildings with no visible damages and/or whose original seismic capacity has not been significantly decreased 2nd Category Temporarily unusable (Posted in yellow) Buildings whose seismic capacity has been decreased and/or they pose a danger condition due to damage of non structural elements. All necessary safety measures should be taken immediately. 3rd Category Unusable / Dangerous (Posted in red) Buildings with heavy damage. Imminent danger of sudden collapse. Entry is absolutely prohibited. All necessary measures should be taken immediately. CATEGORY & COLOR I Green II Yellow III Red USABILITY CLASSIFICATION & POSTING Usable or green adhesive sign Temporarily unusable or yellow adhesive sign Unusable / Dangerous or red adhesive sign DESCRIPTION OF CATEGORY Buildings with no visible damages and/or whose original seismic capacity has not been significantly decreased Buildings whose seismic capacity has been decreased and/or they pose a danger condition due to damage of non structural elements The need for immediate safety measures for the protection of the building and the public, should be considered (temporary support, propping, warning signs, demolition or removal of dangerous elements on the facade) A more detailed evaluation of these buildings will be performed during a second degree inspection Until then the buildings should not be used on a continuous basis. Only limited entry for a short time at owner s risk, is permitted Buildings with heavy damage. Imminent danger of sudden collapse. Entry is absolutely prohibited. All necessary safety measures should be taken immediately, e.g. to protect the adjoining buildings, to prevent the public from coming close to the building INDICATIVE DAMAGE DESCRIPTION Fine cracks to the walls and ceiling mortar Hairline cracks in horizontal RC structural members Large patches of mortar falling off walls and ceilings Light damage to the roof Large cracks or failure of chimneys, gable walls and etc. Diagonal or other large cracks to bearing walls Diagonal cracks or failure of the material in bearing walls between openings Cracks in structural RC members (beams, columns, shear walls), but to an extent that does not constitute a danger of collapse Heavy damage or collapse of the roof Slight distortion of structural elements Heavy damage and distortion of structural elements Large number of crushed structural elements and connections. Considerable dislocation of a storey and of the whole building Bearing walls suffer dislocation or the material is crashed Total or partial collapse D. SAFETY MEASURES Barricades needed in the following areas.... The electricity water gas utilities of should be disconected. Immediate supporting of this building is required..... The following elements should be demolished or removed... E. COMMENTS Date... Time.. THE INSPECTORS 1.Signature Signature Name Affiliation Name Affiliation A COPY OF THE FORM WAS HANDED IN TO: Owner Building Manager Signature.... Other... Organize the operation To be successful, the operation must: Be well organised Yield uniformly reliable damage data Be completed in a short period of time Responsible for the organization of the safety assessment of individual buildings are the local authorities and in most cases the Engineering Department in the prefecture where the damage occurred. The inspection is carried out by two member inspection teams. Depending upon the aftershock sequence, the operation could start immediately or after it is assessed by seismologists that the major threat has passed. The form is filled in two copies, the one handed in to the owner of the building immediately after the inspection and the other submitted to the engineering department every day after the completion of the work of the inspection team. There are print blocks of inspection forms.in every block the engineers can find the table with the building safety classification. CATEGORY & COLOR I Green II Yellow III Red USABILITY CLASSIFICATION & POSTING Usable or green adhesive sign Temporarily unusable or yellow adhesive sign Unusable / Dangerous or red adhesive sign DESCRIPTION OF CATEGORY Buildings with no visible damages and/or whose original seismic capacity has not been significantly decreased Buildings whose seismic capacity has been decreased and/or they pose a danger condition due to damage of non structural elements The need for immediate safety measures for the protection of the building and the public, should be considered (temporary support, propping, warning signs, demolition or removal of dangerous elements on the facade) A more detailed evaluation of these buildings will be performed during a second degree inspection Until then the buildings should not be used on a continuous basis. Only limited entry for a short time at owner s risk, is permitted Buildings with heavy damage. Imminent danger of sudden collapse. Entry is absolutely prohibited. All necessary safety measures should be taken immediately, e.g. to protect the adjoining buildings, to prevent the public from coming close to the building INDICATIVE DAMAGE DESCRIPTION Fine cracks to the walls and ceiling mortar Hairline cracks in horizontal RC structural members Large patches of mortar falling off walls and ceilings Light damage to the roof Large cracks or failure of chimneys, gable walls and etc. Diagonal or other large cracks to bearing walls Diagonal cracks or failure of the material in bearing walls between openings Cracks in structural RC members (beams, columns, shear walls), but to an extent that does not constitute a danger of collapse Heavy damage or collapse of the roof Slight distortion of structural elements Heavy damage and distortion of structural elements Large number of crushed structural elements and connections. Considerable dislocation of a storey and of the whole building Bearing walls suffer dislocation or the material is crashed Total or partial collapse Division in zones: Specification of individual inspection areas for each team There is a short booklet with instructions and basic information, targeting the future inspectors, as well as the authorities responsible to organize the inspection. The booklet informs on the assembling of inspection teams and it specifies their Obligations. It also describes step by step the process of first degree inspection and the activities of the organizing authority. Equipment requirements 1. Inspection forms 2. Booklet with instructions 3. Posting placards or sprays 4. Topographic maps with block & building numbers 5. Hard hat 6. Measuring tape/meter 7. Carpenters ax or hammer 8. Camera with flash and several roles of film 9. Barricading tape 10. Notebook and pen 11. Official identification Posting procedure of buildings during the first degree rapid usability evaluation Colored self- adhesive tapes Pros Uniformity in ensured Inspection results can not be altered Include all relevant information Include inspection date Cons Not always available surface for posting is found Easy to take out Can easily be damaged (weather conditions) Pros Spraying a mark on the building Posting possible on any kind of surface Cons Uniformity not guaranteed Inspection results may be altered No significant discrimination between first and second degree inspections exists. Several emergency operations are interconnected with the building inspection Removal or demolition of dangerous parts and elements of the building Emergency demolition of buildings damaged beyond repair Emergency support of some damaged buildings Disconnection of electricity, water, gas utilities if necessary Application of all necessary security measures (e.g. barricades, warning messages) Second degree inspection
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