Pre Colonial

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     - The pre-colonial architecture of the Philippines consisted of the Nipa hut made from natural materials but there are some traces of large-scale construction before the Spanish colonizers came but not well documented. An example of this is the pre-colonial walled city of Manila although later after the Spanish colonization, dismantled by the Spaniards and rebuilt as Intramuros. There are also other minor pre-colonial walled cities like Betis and Macabebe. Caves (Natural Shelters) Caves and rock shelters like the Tabon Cave in Palawan served as shelters for the early Filipinos.   Banaue Rice Terraces the Banaue Rice Terraces are 2,000-year-old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the indigenous people. The Rice Terraces are commonly referred to by Filipinos as the Eighth Wonder of the World .It is commonly thought that the terraces were built with minimal equipment, largely by hand. The terraces are located approximately 1500 metres (5000 ft) above sea level. They are fed by an ancient irrigation system from the rainforests above the terraces. It is said that if the steps were put end to end, it would encircle half the globe   The Muslim Kota With the arrival of Muslim scholars from nearby Indonesia, the native Filipinos were introduced to the concept of the Kota or fort. The Muslim Filipinos of the south built strong fortresses called kota or moong to protect their communities. Usually, many of the occupants of these kotas are entire families rather than just warriors.    Batanes Castles The Ivatan people of the northern islands of Batanes often built fortifications to protect themselves during times of war. They built their so-called idjangs on hills and elevated areas.These fortifications were likened to European castles because of their purpose. Usually, the only entrance to the castles would be via a rope ladder taht would only be lowered for the villagers and could be kept away when invaders arrived. Igorot Forts The Igorots built forts made of stone walls that averaged several meters in width and about two to three times the width in height around 2000 BC Torogan (The wooden palace) This house of the King has no partitions and it is a multifamily dwelling where all the wives and the children of the Hari (king) lived. The windows of torogan are slits and richly framed in wood panels with okir designs located in front of the house. The communal kitchen is half a meter lower than the main house is both used for cooking and eating. The distinct high gable roof of the torogan, thin at the apex and gracefully flaring out to the eaves, sits on a huge structures enclosed by slabs of timber and lifted more than two meters above the ground by a huge trunk of a tree that was set on a rock. The Bahay Kubo Community members practicing bayanihan , working together to move a house to new location. Note that the nipa hut in this case has a thatch roof, but also has an underlying layer of galvanized iron roofing material, making the roof more waterproof than a simple thatch roof. The Bahay Kubo is the Filipino word for Nipa huts, they were the native houses of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived. They are still used today, especially in rural areas.     
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