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Principles of radar and its application.pdf

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Principles of radar and its application PRINCIPLES OF RADAR AND ITS APPLICATION SUBMITTED BY : NESRUDIN MUSA SUBMITTED TO : Dr:-Ing MOHAMMED ABDO 1|Page Principles of radar and its application June 18, 2014 Table of Contents List of figures and tables ............................................................................................................................... 3 ABSTRUCT .......................................................................................................
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  Principles of radar and its application 1 | Page  PRINCIPLES OF RADAR AND ITS APPLICATION   SUBMITTED BY : NESRUDIN MUSA SUBMITTED TO : Dr:-Ing MOHAMMED ABDO  Principles of radar and its application 2 | Page  June 18, 2014 Table of Contents List of figures and tables ............................................................................................................................... 3 ABSTRUCT ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 5 BASIC RADAR CONCEPTS ............................................................................................................................... 5 RADAR EQUATION ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Range ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 Bearing .................................................................................................................................................... 10 Altitude ................................................................................................................................................... 11 Range resolution ..................................................................................................................................... 12 RADAR COMPONENTS ................................................................................................................................ 12 Synchronizers .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Transmitters ............................................................................................................................................ 13 Duplexers ................................................................................................................................................ 14 Receivers ................................................................................................................................................. 14 Radar indicators (display) ....................................................................................................................... 15 RADAR TYPES .............................................................................................................................................. 16 Pulse and continuous wave radar ........................................................................................................... 17 TARGET CHARACTERISTICS ......................................................................................................................... 17 SPOOFING A RADAR .................................................................................................................................... 19 RADAR FREQUENCIES.................................................................................................................................. 19 APPLICATIONS OF RADAR ........................................................................................................................... 21 General Applications ............................................................................................................................... 21 Major Applications .................................................................................................................................. 21 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 22 References .................................................................................................................................................. 23  Principles of radar and its application 3 | Page  List of figures and tables Figure 1 : radar echo Figure 2 : radar reference coordinates Figure 3 : radar parameters Figure 4 : true and relative bearing Figure 5 : determination of bearing Figure 6 : Electronic elevations scan Figure 7 : basic radar components Figure 8 : Block diagram of typical radar receiver Figure 9 : radar display type Figure 10: types of radar Figure 11: typical radar frequencies Figure 12:  generic radar block diagram Table1: radar frequency, bands and wavelengths and application  Principles of radar and its application 4 | Page   ABSTRUCT This report gives brief information about radar and discusses its background, principles It was German engineer Christian Huelsmeyer who first used the radar principle to build a simple ship detection device intended to help avoid collisions in fog First widely used radar technology was developed for military purpose during World War II. Today, more than half a century later, there is a much wider radar application are a beyond the military one. Radar is needed for weather forecast, airport traffic control and automotive applications such as car distance surveillance and  pedestrian detection. Additionally radar technology today is affordable on a mass production  basis due to highly integrated signal processing components which make it possible to detect even low power signals in applications where at former times much more RF energy was needed. Low power radar components automatically mean savings in costs and size. This paper gives an overview on radar Systems and important measurements on them. BACKGROUND Radar technology was firstly named in the United Kingdom as RDF (Radio Direction Finder) where the developments started. However, the invention of radar was not declared to a specific inventor, but many engineers in sever all countries contributed to the development of radar. The first attempt to use radio waves in radar was to detect the presence of a ship in the middle of the fog by Christian Hulsmeyer in 1904. In 1917, Nikola Tesla was the first one who established the  basic principles regarding frequency and power level of radar units. Before the Second World War, many countries performed many experiments to find a way to  predict the enemy aircraft movements and targeting or tracking lunched bombs. The British government was the first to gather a team of scientists and engineers to research the possibility of  building a system that can send a death ray to hit an aircraft in the air and cause damage to the  pilot and his plane. But in 1935, Waston-Watt reported to the government that although it's  possible theoretically but no such high energy ray can be produced to harm an aircraft or its crew. Despite the failure of death ray development, The British developers carried on their tests until in 1935 when they succeeded in detecting radar echoes from a flying boat at a range of 17 miles and they were able to increase the range afterward. In 1936, The British Air Ministry was able to build the first radar system called Cain Home which consists of an array of towers of 300 feet high to guide the pilots towards incoming German bombers. Later, Alan Blumlein succeeded to program a radar circuitry called H2S which is able to allocate a target with a  precision never seen before for the bombers. The H2S radar was a main radar development and the main role of ending the Second World War by targeting the atomic bomb

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Jul 23, 2017
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