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PROJECOES_CARTOGRAFICAS.pdf

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Cartographic Projection Procedures for the UNIX Environment—A User’s Manual by Gerald I. Evenden1 Open-File Report 90–284 This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards. Use of tradenames is for purposes of identification only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. May 13, 1990 (Revised 1st January 2003) 1 Woods Hole, MA 02543 ii Co
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  UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIORGEOLOGICAL SURVEY Cartographic Projection Procedures for the UNIXEnvironment—A User’s Manual by Gerald I. Evenden 1 Open-File Report 90–284This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S.Geological Survey editorial standards. Use of tradenames is for purposes of identi-fication only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.May 13, 1990(Revised 1st January 2003) 1 Woods Hole, MA 02543  ii  Contents Introduction 1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Typological Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Basic Usage 2 Inputing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Form of Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Data Output 5 Output of error data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Binary Input–Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Cartesian Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Cartographic Parameters 7 Selection of Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Specifying the Earth’s Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Common Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Projection descriptions 10Cylindrical Projections 11Pseudocylindrical Projections 21Conic Projections 33Azimuthal Projections 39Miscellaneous Projections 49U.S. State Plane Coordinate Systems (SPCS) 57 SPCS Conversion Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Appendix 1—Summary of basic commands 59References 61 iii  iv

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Jul 23, 2017
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