Psych Final Exam Study Guide

Intro to Psychology Final exam information. Summary of semester lectures
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  Massive Elementary Psychology Final Exam Study Guide Language I.   Language and Thinking a.   Whorfian Hypothesis i.   Language determines thought 1.   Words in language influence thought and perceptions 2.   Foundation of reality is imposed by language 3.   Each culture has a different language  –   each culture has a different reality ii.   Evidence for Whorfian Hypothesis 1.   Words in language vary by experience a.   Example: Eskimos have a large number of words for snow  b.   Influence how Eskimos perceive snow c.   We see snow as one thing d.   Experience differs by culture to create a different reality 2.   Perception of color by language a.   Many languages don’t have elaborate names for color    b.   Primitive language use only light and dark c.   Perception of color should be different for each culture 3.   Euphemisms a.   Use of a term that’s less offensive   b.   Changing of words without negative connotation might change perceptions for the group c.   Example: mental retardation  b.   Thought Determines Language i.   Reality is out there ii.   Reality isn’t different for every culture  iii.   Language doesn’t determine how we think iv.   Evidence for this hypothesis 1.   Eskimos don’t have more words for snow than we do  a.   Their words correspond to our descriptions of snow  b.   We experience snow similarly 2.   Color perception is similar across culture a.   Roche (1995): “Stone Age” individuals wer  e able to match colors that were similar; culture asked to learn colors and as they learned, less errors were made 3.   Words can be ambiguous a.   Words can have more than one meaning in a sentence (puns, jokes, etc.)  b.   Language is not telling you what you think II.   Problem Solving a.   Features of Problem Solving i.   Goal directedness- behavior oriented toward a goal ii.   Use of subgoals- breaking down original goal into smaller goals iii.   Meeting subgoals- taking action and achieving a subgoal   b.   Obstacles to achieving goals i.   Ill-defined problems 1.   Problems with many solutions a.   Many paths would lead to achieving a goal 2.   Hard to know if progress is being made 3.   Problems need to be well-defined ii.   Repeat-state avoidance 1.   Having to back track in order to reach goal a.    Negative bias held toward backtracking 2.   Big problem when a mistake has been made iii.   Functional fixedness 1.   Candle-mounting problem 2.   Fail to recognize objects can be used for a purpose other than what they were designed for 3.   Huge impediment to problem solving iv.   Salience of surface similarities 1.   Focus on surface properties of a problem 2.   Use similar techniques to solve similar problems a.   Even when inappropriate 3.   Gick and Holyak (1980) a.   Groups given different aspects of a problem  b.   Success: i.    No memory task + radiation = 10% ii.   Fortress + solve radiation = 30% iii.   Fortress + hint solve radiation = 75% Development I.   Background a.   Development Psychology i.   Study of change across the lifespan (from birth to death)  b.   Conception (2 weeks pregnant) c.   4 weeks- fetal pole (a physician can tell you you’re pregnant)  i.   Most susceptible to toxins d.   8 weeks- heartbeat; looks a little like a human e.   12 weeks- most organs have been initially developed, blueprint; fingers and toes i.   Size of a grape f.   16 weeks- sex organs visible; pretty much a well formed baby g.   20 weeks- starts using organs; works on trying out respiration h.   24 to 26 weeks- can start hearing outside sounds; acclimated to outside noises i.   28- viable pregnancy (85% survival rate)  j.   36 weeks-grow; practicing using organs k.   Full term pregnancy is 37 weeks (about 40 weeks; 10 lunar months) II.   Development a.   Abilities/knowledge at birth i.   Feeding, voice of mother, social responsiveness, differentiate humans from other species (tested through habituation)  b.   In the first year, most kids will:  i.   Sit (about 6 months) ii.   Crawl (8-11 months) iii.   Walk (12-18 months) iv.   Say first word (12 months) v.   Increase neural pathways 1.   At age 3, children have twice as many paths as adults 2.   At age 11, pruning begins (trimming useless paths) c.   Two explanations for rapid changes: i.    Nature- innate and genetic 1.   Maturation: universal changes in physical development across culture ii.    Nurture- experiences 1.   Learning a.   Example: language production associated with exposure iii.   Current view: both! d.   Critical periods i.   Short period of time in which your body is ready to acquire a new skill or change 1.   Biology establishes the time period (nature) 2.   Experience teaches the skill (nurture) e.   Johnson and Newport (1989) i.   Chinese and Korean speakers who learned English ii.   Given choices between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences iii.   Exposure to English later in life = not as fluent (after age 7) iv.   Before age 7 = more fluent in English v.   Critical period for language acquisition is before age 7 f.   Changes later in life: i.   Adolescence 1.   Puberty and physical maturation ii.   Adulthood 1.   Fertility decreases 2.   Certain types of intelligence decrease after age 30 3.   Some complex motor tasks and coordination tasks III.   Developmental Theories a.   Piaget’s Stage Theory (1929)  i.   Children develop cognitive abilities over time ii.   Two processes of development: 1.   Assimilation- fit new experiences into way of thinking 2.   Accommodation- change existing way of thinking, based on new experiences iii.   Proposed 4 stages of development, each with more advanced cognitive abilities iv.   His theory: the exact timing may differ, but all kids have the same order of  progression v.   Stage 1 (Sensorimotor) 1.   Age: Birth to 2 years  2.   Thoughts and actions identical 3.   Interaction with the world via sensory reflexes 4.   Acquisition of object permanence a.   Objects are remembered even when out of sight  b.   Understand around 8 to 9 months 5.   Observe using A-not-B Error a.   Preservation- using a task that’s been successf  ul in the past even though not appropriate  b.   Success between 12 to 13 months vi.   Stage 2 (Preoperational) 1.   Age: 2 to 7 years 2.   Increase in symbolic thought (using symbols to stand for things) a.   Language development  b.   Play pretend 3.   Egocentrism- can’t understand things from others’ perspectives  vii.   Stage 3 (Concrete Operational) 1.   Age: 7 to 11 years 2.   Logical thinking a.   Understand transitivity 3.   Develop conservation- able to see that products or objects aren’t changing even if they undergo a transformation viii.   Stage 4 (Formal Operation) 1.   Age: 11 and up 2.   Abstract thinking a.   Can understand concepts that don’t have physical entities  3.   The stage we’re all in  ix.   Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory  1.   Development is more continuous than stage-like 2.   Changing procedures a little bit changes results a lot 3.   Methods culturally biased  b.   Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development  i.   Two mechanisms for change 1.   Internalization a.   Process in which social factors are internalized in infants  b.   Mastering skills by interacting with others c.   How child adapts to society 2.   Zone of Proximal Development a.   Gap between your actual developmental level and your  potential developmental level  b.   Thinking skills that are under development c.   To maximize development, should work within this zone d.   Learn through scaffolding c.   Attachment Theory i.   John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth ii.   Focus on relationship with their primary caregiver iii.   At about 8 months, infants form a strong bond (“attachment”)  
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