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1. The Learning Approach (Behaviourism) 2. Watson (1878-1958) "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and…
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  • 1. The Learning Approach (Behaviourism)
  • 2. Watson (1878-1958) "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select-- doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors."(Watson, 1930)
  • 3. What is it all about? All behaviour is learned from the environment We are born as “blank slates” (tabula rasa) All we have at birth is the capacity to learn Focus of the approach: observable behaviour
  • 4. Some definitions.... Stimulus : Any change in the environment that an organism registers. Response : Any behaviour that the organism emits as a consequence of a stimulus. Reflex: A consistent connection between a stimulus and a response.
  • 5. Classical conditioning Learning by association
  • 6. That’s a reflex Dog hears the lab technician What’s going on?
  • 7. Bell: Neutral stimulus (NS) Salivation: unconditioned Response (UCR) Bell: Conditioned stimulus (CS) Salivation: Conditioned response (CR) Food: unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Before conditioning During conditioning After conditioning Pairing Bell: Neutral stimulus (NS) Food: unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Salivation: unconditioned Response (UCR) How does it work?
  • 8. Work it out.... <ul><li>A child is afraid of spiders. One day he is in a lift and notices a spider. Now he is afraid of lifts. </li></ul>Neutral stimulus (NS)? Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)? Unconditioned response (UCR)? Conditioned stimulus (CS)? Conditioned response(CR)?
  • 9. Inducing a phobia: Little Albert
  • 10. Operant conditioning <ul><li>Learning by consequences </li></ul>
  • 11. Ratatouille Ratatouille is hungry and perform various exploratory behaviours By chance he presses the lever A pellet of food appears! I’ll do that again
  • 12. Some definitions.... Reinforcement : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated Positive reinforcement : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they happen i.e. food for Ratatouille Negative reinforcement : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they stop Punishment : Anything which has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are unpleasant when happen
  • 13. Schedules of reinforcement <ul><li>When and how often we reinforce a behaviour can have a significant impact on the strength and rate of the response. </li></ul><ul><li>2 types of schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous reinforcement : the desired behaviour is reinforced every single time it occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Partial reinforcement : the response is reinforced only part of the time. </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Fixed ratio schedules : the response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-interval schedules the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. </li></ul>
  • 15. Which schedule of reinforcement produces the fastest learning?
  • 16. Social learning Learning by and observation imitation
  • 17. Bandura (1977) believed that four criteria need too be met for imitation to occur 1. Attention to the role model 2. Retention of the observed behaviour 3. Reproduction of the target behaviour 4. Motivation to imitate the observed behaviour
  • 18. Who makes an effective role model? Same gender Same age Higher status Admired or/and respected
  • 19. Why do we imitate? What??? Observe behaviour being reinforced in other people Vicarious reinforcements
  • 20. Bandura (1961)
  • 21. And now lets think! <ul><li>Does this account for the way you learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this explain gender development? </li></ul><ul><li>Can this be applied to everyday life? i.e. Some of your behaviour and your teacher’s behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>More points of evaluation? </li></ul>
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