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1. Individual Differences Approach 2. What is personality? How can you define/explain it? 3. Personality is: <ul><li>Personality is a hypothetical construct!…
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  • 1. Individual Differences Approach
  • 2. What is personality? How can you define/explain it?
  • 3. Personality is: <ul><li>Personality is a hypothetical construct! </li></ul><ul><li>We can never observe one </li></ul><ul><li>We can only infer personality from behaviour </li></ul>
  • 4. Personality is: (continued) <ul><li>Baron & Byrne (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is … </li></ul><ul><li>…… the combination of those relatively enduring TRAITS which influence behaviour in a predictable way in a variety of situations …... </li></ul>
  • 5. Trait Theories of Personality… <ul><li>EYSENCK (1953) </li></ul><ul><li>The INTROVERT personality </li></ul><ul><li>A typical introvert is quiet, retiring, introspective, fond of books rather than of people, reserved & distant... </li></ul>
  • 6. Trait Theories of Personality… <ul><li>EYSENCK (1953) </li></ul><ul><li>The EXTROVERT personality </li></ul><ul><li>A typical extrovert is sociable, likes parties, has many friends, needs people to talk to, craves excitement, and likes change… </li></ul>
  • 7. Biological Approach to Personality <ul><li>EYSENCK.. Biological differences in nervous systems </li></ul><ul><li>Extroverts have STRONG nervous systems which tend to DAMP down incoming sensory data - thus they are UNDER AROUSED and need to ‘arouse themselves’ with activity’ </li></ul><ul><li>Introverts have SENSITIVE nervous systems which AMPLIFY incoming sensory data, thus they need to ‘reduce sensory input’... </li></ul>
  • 8. Personality Traits: <ul><li>Does the EYSENCK theory of a biological basis for personality predict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STABLE personality traits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIABLE personality traits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a reductionist theory of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ What do we mean by ‘reductionist’ ? </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Freud ‘s psychodynamic theory of personality <ul><li>The tripartite structure of personality </li></ul><ul><li>ID </li></ul><ul><li>EGO </li></ul><ul><li>SUPEREGO </li></ul>
  • 10. What is Multiple Personality Disorder? (MPD)
  • 11. MPD or Schizophrenia? <ul><li>Schizophrenics commonly have problems with reality tests (where you check that ones perceptions of reality match up with reality). </li></ul><ul><li>The multiple personalities of an individual will not have problems with reality tests (all the personalities perceptions of reality match up with reality). </li></ul>
  • 12. MPD or Schizophrenia? continued <ul><li>Schizophrenia does literally mean ‘split-mind’, however this is referring to the loss of unity between psychological functions </li></ul><ul><li>MPD is “dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct personalities co-exist within the same individual” </li></ul><ul><li>MPD is also known as ‘Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)- mainly in the USA. </li></ul>
  • 13. Dissociation: <ul><li>Is a mental process which produces a lack of connection in a person’s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions or sense of identity. This is on a spectrum, we have all be affected mildly e.g. daydreaming, getting ‘lost’ in a book or film or driving on ‘auto-pilot’. </li></ul>
  • 14. MPD Symptoms: <ul><li>At least two distinct identities or personality states. </li></ul><ul><li>Each personality has it own lasting pattern of sensing, thinking and relating to self and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>At least two of these personalities assume control of the patients behaviour </li></ul>
  • 15. MPD Symptoms continued: <ul><li>Common forgetfulness cannot explain the patient’s extensive inability to remember important personal details </li></ul><ul><li>This behaviour is not directly caused by substance abuse or by a general medical condition. </li></ul>
  • 16. What causes MPD? <ul><li>Believed it is a response to extremely traumatic situations in which there are no physical means of escape. If the person ‘goes away in their head’ they can remove themselves from the pain and function if it has not occurred. </li></ul>
  • 17. Does it Exist? Can you ‘fake’ it? Why would you want to?
  • 18. Thigpen and Cleckley (1954) <ul><li>Aim: to record the symptoms and treatment of a multiple personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>This is a case study (and a record of a therapeutic process) </li></ul><ul><li>Their paper was published in the Journal of abnormal & social psychology (1954) </li></ul>
  • 19. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>Who was EVE? </li></ul><ul><li>A 25 year old woman who was referred </li></ul><ul><li>because of her SEVERE & BLINDING HEADACHES and spells of amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Thigpen & Cleckley tested her with </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric tests, projective tests, </li></ul>
  • 20. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>In the initial interviews (EVE WHITE) </li></ul><ul><li>EVE complained of (symptoms) </li></ul><ul><li>Blinding Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Blackouts </li></ul><ul><li>Marital Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Personal problems </li></ul>
  • 21. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>What was EVE WHITE like? </li></ul><ul><li>IQ score 110 </li></ul><ul><li>memory - excellent </li></ul><ul><li>repressive personality </li></ul><ul><li>conservative, shy, dutiful </li></ul><ul><li>loving wife and mother </li></ul>
  • 22. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>THEN WHAT HAPPENED? </li></ul><ul><li>EVE WHITE </li></ul><ul><li>EVE showed amnesia for a recent trip and was HYPNOTISED in order to restore her memory </li></ul>
  • 23. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>THEN WHAT HAPPENED? </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST SIGN OF SOMETHING ODD! </li></ul><ul><li>A letter arrived which was written in two kinds of handwriting! </li></ul>
  • 24. The Three Faces of Eve The letter is objective evidence
  • 25. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>What did EVE say about the letter? </li></ul><ul><li>She denied writing it, though she did say she had begun a letter which she had not finished </li></ul>
  • 26. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>What happened then? </li></ul><ul><li>Eve became distressed and asked </li></ul><ul><li>“whether hearing voices in her head meant she was insane” </li></ul><ul><li>she said that she had heard a voice in her head speaking to her </li></ul>
  • 27. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>This was a critical interview </li></ul><ul><li>Several times she put her hands to her head as if in pain </li></ul><ul><li>AND THEN... </li></ul>
  • 28. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>THE TRANSFORMATION! </li></ul><ul><li>EVE WHITE CHANGED and became EVE BLACK! </li></ul><ul><li>1st ‘alter-ego? </li></ul>
  • 29. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>THE TRANSFORMATION! </li></ul><ul><li>The therapist noted </li></ul><ul><li>A quick reckless smile…”HI DOC” </li></ul><ul><li>Eve White now displayed </li></ul><ul><li>a childishly daredevil air </li></ul><ul><li>an erotic glance </li></ul><ul><li>even her sitting posture changed </li></ul><ul><li>Eve White became Eve Black! </li></ul>
  • 30. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>What was EVE BLACK like? </li></ul><ul><li>IQ score 104 </li></ul><ul><li>memory - poor </li></ul><ul><li>regressive personality </li></ul><ul><li>childish, extrovert, mischievous </li></ul><ul><li>denied being a wife & mother </li></ul>
  • 31. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>The therapy lasted 14 months and 100 hours of interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Eve Black would sometimes ‘appear’ but could only be CALLED OUT under hypnosis </li></ul>
  • 32. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>Eve White was not aware of Eve Black </li></ul><ul><li>Eve Black was aware of Eve White </li></ul><ul><li>Eve Black had existed since childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Eve Black - “would emerge, would behave badly and then retreat and let Eve White take the blame… (parents verified incidents) </li></ul>
  • 33. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>How T & C described Eve Black </li></ul><ul><li>“ childish, irresponsible & shallow </li></ul><ul><li>“ seeking pleasure & excitement </li></ul><ul><li>“ denied marriage to EW’s husband </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>whom she despised </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ denied relationship with EW’s daughter </li></ul>
  • 34. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>Did her family not notice ANYTHING odd </li></ul><ul><li>When they observed EB they put her harshness & aggression down to ‘occasional temper tantrums in a normally gentle woman </li></ul>
  • 35. The Three Faces of Eve <ul><li>Personality tests (psychometric tests) </li></ul><ul><li>Rorschach ink blot tests </li></ul><ul><li>EW = repressive (FREUD) </li></ul><ul><li>EB = regressive (FREUD) </li></ul><ul><li>Electroencephalograms (EEG) to record brain activity) </li></ul>
  • 36. How did the therapists measure the variables of personality? <ul><li>Rorschach ink blot test = a projective test </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>Is what you see a projection of your unconscious mind? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a quantitative or qualitative measure? </li></ul><ul><li>How valid is this measure? </li></ul>
  • 37. How did the therapists measure the variables of personality? <ul><li>Thematic Apperception Test = a projective test </li></ul><ul><li>Write a storyline for the pic: </li></ul><ul><li>What has been happening? </li></ul><ul><li>What is happening? </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your story a projection of your unconscious fears/desires? </li></ul><ul><li>How valid is this measure? </li></ul>
  • 38. As treatment progressed <ul><li>EW headaches recurred & got worse </li></ul><ul><li>Blackouts increased </li></ul><ul><li>Both EW & EW denied awareness in these blackouts </li></ul><ul><li>EW state of mind deteriorated </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(confinement was considered) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>THEN WHAT HAPPENED!! </li></ul>
  • 39. Another personality appears! <ul><li>A THIRD personality </li></ul><ul><li>who called herself JANE </li></ul><ul><li>JANE had full awareness of EW and EB </li></ul><ul><li>Neither EW nor EB were aware of JANE </li></ul>
  • 40. What did Thigpen & Cleckley do? <ul><li>All THREE personalities were tested by electroencephalogram </li></ul><ul><li>clear differences were recorded </li></ul><ul><li>therapy continued to treat all THREE women in the ONE body </li></ul>
  • 41. Psychological Tests Not done Hysterical tendencies Rigid but healthy Drawings No test Regressive Repressive Personality 11 per second 12.5 per second (psycho-pathic?) 11 per second (normal) EEG Not done inferior superior Memory test Not done 104 110 IQ Jane EB EW TESTS
  • 42. The decision of Thigpen & Cleckley <ul><li>Jane seemed to be </li></ul><ul><li>the person most likely </li></ul><ul><li>to bring a solution </li></ul><ul><li>to the troubled mind </li></ul><ul><li>She was increasingly dominant over the other personalities </li></ul>
  • 43. The moral dilemma- ethics! <ul><li>‘Killing’ one or more personality- how ethical is this? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should decide which personality stays and which goes? </li></ul>
  • 44. Other explanations? <ul><li>Was the woman a very good actress </li></ul><ul><li>(were T & C conned?) </li></ul><ul><li>Was the woman psychotic (schizophrenic?) </li></ul><ul><li>Could the hypnotism have caused the multiple personality effect? </li></ul>
  • 45. What did T & C conclude? <ul><li>They did wonder whether they had become so involved that they ‘lost their sense of judgement and over dramatised the case’ </li></ul><ul><li>They remain convinced that they witnessed a case of multiple personality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: A film was made! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 46. The Three faces of Eve - postscript <ul><li>In 1975 a woman came forward and said SHE was EVE White </li></ul><ul><li>said she had experienced many other personalities both before therapy and since (22 in all) </li></ul><ul><li>that the fragmentation of her personality had been to protect herself from ‘unbearable experiences’ </li></ul>
  • 47. Ethical problems <ul><li>Killing one/more of the personalities - who should decide this? </li></ul><ul><li>Making a film for profit - who benefits & what about patient confidentiality? </li></ul><ul><li>During the treatment Eve White got worse </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Who’ gives informed consent for the treatment procedures ? </li></ul>
  • 48. Ethical problems <ul><li>Which personality do you think T & C approved of most? </li></ul><ul><li>Might there be a ‘culture & gender bias issue here? Were their judgements biased by the ‘social norms’ of the 1950s </li></ul>
  • 49. Key Concepts <ul><li>EEG – electroencephalogram electrodes placed on head measure brain patterns from the different lobes </li></ul><ul><li>MPD – a neurosis, not a psychosis like schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Repressed – suppresses feelings and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Regressive – reverts to a childlike stage </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopath – no empathy for others, egocentric, amoral </li></ul>
  • 50. Questions you should be able to answer <ul><li>What were the similarities & differences between Eve White and Eve Black? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the main difference between multiple personality disorder & schizophrenia? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems with the case study method does this study highlight? </li></ul><ul><li>What factor(s) may have influenced their diagnosis? </li></ul>
  • 51. Questions you should be able to answer <ul><li>If Eysenck’s theory of biological basis for personality is CORRECT could Eve have had multiple personalities? </li></ul><ul><li>Note: These days MPD is called DID ! </li></ul><ul><li>Disassociative Identity Disorder </li></ul>
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