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1. Starter: <ul><li>Actual footage from the study </li></ul> 2. Developmental Approach Bandura Ross and Ross 3. Background…
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  • 1. Starter: <ul><li>Actual footage from the study </li></ul>
  • 2. Developmental Approach Bandura Ross and Ross
  • 3. Background <ul><li>Behaviourist perspective: This theory suggests that behaviour is conditioned (learned) by reinforcing responses to certain conditions. If a behaviour occurs with enough regular reinforcement (something positive) then the behaviour will be acquired (conditioned response). </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning theory: Is an extension of Behaviourism. It is suggested that behaviour can be conditioned not only from reinforcing the persons behaviour, but also by observing someone else’s behaviour. Modelling (imitation) will occur if the person being observed is positive. </li></ul><ul><li>A further extension of this point is vicarious reinforcement. If you observe positive responses to someone else’s behaviour you will be more likely to exhibit that behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 4. Aim <ul><li>This study investigates the imitation of aggression and is based on the principles of Social Learning Theory. Four hypotheses were tested: </li></ul><ul><li>Children exposed to an adult behaving aggressively towards a toy will imitate this behaviour in the absence of the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Children exposed to a non-aggressive model will show less aggressive behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Children will imitate same-sex models more than opposite-sex models. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys may be more predisposed to imitate aggressive models than girls. </li></ul>
  • 5. Method <ul><li>The method was a laboratory experiment with observational techniques to collect data </li></ul><ul><li>I.V 1: Gender of child </li></ul><ul><li>I.V 2: Gender of Model </li></ul><ul><li>I.V 3: aggressive or non aggressive model </li></ul><ul><li>D.V was type of behaviour (aggressive or non) </li></ul>
  • 6. How the data was collected <ul><li>Sample: 72 children between 37 and 69 months old. All attended the nursery at Stanford University Equal numbers of boys and girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation: 2 rooms; observation room and frustration room. The observation room contained various items to play with (aggressive and non aggressive) including a bobo doll, hammer and gun. This room had a one way mirror for the experimenters to observe behaviour. The second room contained attractive toys. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: Children exposed to adult model (individually). In the aggressive condition the model acted out a series of pre-planned aggressive acts towards the Bobo doll. In the non-aggressive condition the model played quietly. Mild aggression arousal then induced by briefly showing the children some attractive toys in another room and they told they weren’t allowed to play with them. Observation of delayed imitation lasting 20 mins while child was in the observation room. </li></ul><ul><li>Recordings: Imitative physical aggression, Imitative verbal aggression, Imitative non-aggressive responses. </li></ul>
  • 7. Findings: <ul><li>Children in the aggressive condition reproduced (imitated) a lot of physical and verbal aggression used by the model, whereas children in the non-aggressive and control conditions showed virtually none of this behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Children in the aggressive condition also copied the model’s non-aggressive verbal responses and none of the children in the other conditions did. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys produced more imitative physical aggression than girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Children were more likely to imitate the same-sex model than the opposite-sex model. </li></ul><ul><li>The children were shocked and surprised at the female role model displaying physical and verbal aggression. </li></ul>
  • 8. Conclusions <ul><li>The results support the ideas of Social Learning Theory as they demonstrate that children will imitate the behaviours of others in the absence of reward/reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>The results also suggest that there may be gender differences in the likelihood of aggressive behaviours being imitated. </li></ul>
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