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1. Wellington School Psychology Department Excellence in Everything Year 13 A2 Course Overview OCR Psychology Syllabus Contents ã Expectations (reading list, websites,…
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  • 1. Wellington School Psychology Department Excellence in Everything Year 13 A2 Course Overview OCR Psychology Syllabus Contents • Expectations (reading list, websites, skimming/scanning, referral process, homework, participation). • The programme of study/year outline. • The scheme of assessment. • Modules overview : 1) Cognitive 2) Developmental 3) Social 4) Physiological 5) Individual differences 6) Investigations • Rules & marking at A2 level (referrals) (grades etc) (file scans) (revision sessions) • Key dates and deadlines • Guidelines on how to organise files • Tips for independent learning/revision • Equipment list/Summer task
  • 2. Expectations Welcome to your A2 Psychology Course. As I’m sure you have heard a thousand times or more this is very different to studying at AS level. Study habits etc must change in preparation for your exams if you are to be successful. Firstly, there are numerous books you may like to familiarise yourself with: 1) OCR Psychology A2 A. Bainbridge, W. Collier, S. Latham, Sarah. Middleton, B. Saunders ISBN 978-0-435806-93-4 2) OCR A2 Psychology- Health and clinical Psychology Student guide. ISBN 9780340976159 3) OCR A2 Psychology: Guide to Approaches and Research Methods in Psychology - Student Unit Guides ISBN: 9780340987933 4) OCR A2 Psychology: Forensic Psychology Unit Guide - Student Unit Guides by Sarah Middleton ISBN: 9780340987513 There are also various websites, some free, some have a small charge. 1) www.holah.co.uk 2) www.psychexchange.co.uk 3) www.garysturt.com 4) www.psychologystuff.com You are required to read outside of the lesson. This can take many forms: 1) Review your class handouts, synthasise using highlighter. Condense studies to key points 2) Read studies/topics on relevant websites given. 3) Always review previous lesson before the next lesson. This is essential. • When skimming/scanning notes ensure you use a highlighter. This will help you when it comes to revision as key points will already be highlighted. Secondly, homework is set every week by both members of staff. This is essential and if any work is missed without a legitimate explanation referrals to the Head of Sixth Form and compulsory support with the member of staff will follow. If the lack of organisation persists parents will be asked to attend a meeting with myself and the Head of Sixth Form. • Lastly, you are expected to participate fully in lessons at all times. This means participation in class discussion, group work and individual tasks.
  • 3. The Programme of Study You will complete 2 assessed tasks per sub topic. Each module contains 8 subtopics. You will complete approximately 2 assessed tasks per week (1 per member of staff) Autumn Term (1) • Approaches in Psychology and psychological debates. • Clinical psychology Psychology. Autumn Term (2) • Clinical psychology • Revision of methods and approaches Spring Term (1) • EXAM: Methods and approaches (JAN) (G544)) • Forensic Psychology Spring Term (2) • Forensic Psychology Summer Term (1) • Forensic Psychology • Revision Summer Term (2) • Revision • EXAM: Options in Applied Psychology (G543) (June)
  • 4. The Scheme of Assessment 2543, 2545, 2547 (A2 modules) (AS accounts for 50% of A Level) G543 Options in Applied Psychology (25% of total A level)
  • 5. 1.5 h written paper 100 marks This question paper has four options: • forensic psycholog y; • health and clinical psycholog y; • psycholog y of sport and exercise; • psycholog y of education. Candidate s study and answer questions from any two options (in our case the first 2) Candidate s are required to answer two questions from the two options. Candidate s should address the questions in relation to their chosen option.
  • 6. G544 Approaches and Research methods in Psychology (25% total A Level)
  • 7. 1.5 h written paper 80 marks This question paper has two sections: Section A: research methods. Section B: an essay linking approaches , perspective s, methods, issues and debates. Section A: Candidates are required to answer all questions based around the design of a practical project based on stimulus material. Candidates can draw on material from both AS and A2 courses. Section B: Candidates are required to answer one question from a choice of two. Questions may be based on
  • 8. Grade Descriptors GRADE A/B Assessment Objective 1: Knowledge and Understanding of Science and how science works • demonstrate relevant, accurate and detailed knowledge of a range of psychological concepts, theories, studies, research methods, applications, principles and perspectives • show understanding of most principles and concepts • select relevant information • organise and present information clearly, using psychological terminology in appropriate contexts Assessment Objective2: Application of Knowledge and Understanding of Science and how science works • apply principles and concepts in familiar and new contexts involving several steps in the argument • directly address the issue, showing effective analysis and evaluation when considering psychological concepts, theories, research methods, applications, principles and perspectives • describe significant trends and patterns shown by complex data presented in tables and graphs • critically evaluate statements, conclusions and data • successfully translate data presented as prose, diagrams, drawings, tables or graphs from one form to another • select a wide range of facts, principles and concepts from AS and A2 • make links between appropriate facts, principles and concepts from different areas of the specification Assessment Objective 3: How Science Works • show a sounds knowledge and understanding of the principles of research and design • give clearly reasoned justification for design decisions • comment effectively on strength, limitations and ethical issues in research design • comment effectively on the issues of reliability and validity of data • interpret and draw appropriate conclusions from data
  • 9. MODULES OVERVIEW le A2 Unit G544: Approaches and Research Methods in Psychology This unit brings together the approaches, perspectives, methods, issues and debates covered throughout the course. It will be assessed in two sections: The unit will consist of two parts: • Section A: Research methods: the design of a practical project. • Section B: Structured synoptic questions on approaches, perspectives, methods, issues and debates. Section A – Research methods: the design of a practical project This section will examine all aspects of research methods including all of the topics in the AS research methods unit and the design of a practical project. This unit builds and extends on the research methodology learned in unit G541. The question paper will contain a short passage setting the scene and provide the focus for a set of research questions. The assessment task will require the design of a specific practical project that could be carried out by candidates, for example a repeated measures design for an experiment involving two conditions and collecting at least ordinal data. It is recommended that the process of designing, conducting and evaluating be practised within a classroom setting in preparation as candidates may be asked about practical difficulties or problems and how they could be overcome.
  • 10. Evaluation of methodology Candidates should have knowledge and experience of: • the strengths and weaknesses of different research methods; • the strengths and weaknesses of any aspect of the design, the validity and reliability of the measurements; • the ethics of the procedure. Consideration of Candidates should have knowledge and experience of: • possible future research; • alternative designs and samples.
  • 11. Section B – Approaches, perspectives, methods, issues and debates This section will examine all aspects of approaches, perspectives, methods, issues and debates arising throughout the whole AS and A2 course. Questions will be in the form of structured essay questions. For this section, candidates are expected to have knowledge and understanding of, and to be able to evaluate, all approaches, perspectives, methods, issues and debates raised as part of the AS course, developed as part of the A2 course. New issues and debates are introduced for A2. Each aspect listed below will be covered as part of AS level and the content of Unit G543: Options in Applied Psychology. Approaches Candidates should have knowledge and understanding of: • physiological; • cognitive; • individual differences; • developmental; • social. Perspectives Candidates should have knowledge and understanding of: • behaviourist; • psychodynamic. Methods Candidates should have knowledge and understanding of: • experimental (laboratory and field); • case study; • self-report; • observation; • methodological issues such as reliability and validity. Issues Candidates should have knowledge and understanding of: • ethics; • ecological validity; • longitudinal and snapshot; • qualitative and quantitative data. Debates Candidates should have knowledge and understanding of: • determinism and free will; • reductionism and holism; • nature–nurture; • ethnocentrism; • psychology as science; • individual and situational explanations; • the usefulness of psychological research.
  • 12. A2 Unit G543: Options in Applied Psychology Forensic Psychology Candidates should: • be able to describe and evaluate the areas below in the light of psychological theories, studies and evidence; • always seek to apply psychological methods, perspectives and issues; • actively seek to apply theory and evidence to the improvement of real-life events and situations; • explore social, moral, cultural and spiritual issues where applicable; • consider ways in which the core areas of psychology (cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, physiological psychology, social psychology and the psychology of individual differences), studied in the AS course, can inform our understanding of forensic psychology.
  • 13. Turning to Crime To introduce some of the influences that psychologists have used to explain criminal behaviour Upbringing • Disrupted families – (eg Farrington’s study); • Learning from others – (eg Peers – Differential association hypothesis. Sutherland 1939); • Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods (eg any of the SCoPic ('social contexts of pathways into crime') studies looking at pathways into crime in UK or US; Peterborough study most relevant). Cognition • Criminal thinking patterns (eg Yochelson & Samenow); • Moral development and crime (eg Kohlberg); • Social cognition (eg attribution of blame –Gudjohnsson). Biology • Brain dysfunction (eg Raine’s work on the cortex and other work); • Genes and serotonin (eg Brunner 1991); • Gender (eg evolutionary explanation of why males commit more crime, eg Daly & Wilson 1988).
  • 14. Making a case How psychology can inform the investigative process Interviewing witnesses • Recognising and recreating faces by E-fit (eg Bruce 1988); • Factors influencing accurate identification (eg the ‘weapon focus’ effect, eg Loftus); • The cognitive interview (eg Geiselman 1985/6). Interviewing suspects • Detecting lies (eg Vrij 2000); • Interrogation techniques (eg Inbau); • False confessions (eg Gudjohnsson 1992). Creating a profile • Top down typology (eg Hazelwood); • Bottom up approaches such as circle theory or geographical profiling (eg Canter); • Case study (eg John Duffy). Reaching a verdict How psychology can inform behaviour in the courtroom Persuading a jury • Effect of order of testimony (eg Pennington & Hastie); • Persuasion (eg use of expert witnesses, Krauss & Sales 2001); • Effect of evidence being ruled inadmissible (eg Broeder 1959). Witness appeal • Attractiveness of the defendant (eg Castellow 1990); • Witness confidence (eg Penrod & Cutler 1987); • Effect of shields and videotape on children giving evidence (Ross et al 1994). Reaching a verdict • Stages and influences on decision making (eg Hastie 1983); • Majority influence (eg Asch 1953); • Minority influence (eg Moscovici 1976, 1980, 1985). After a guilty verdict To look at how psychology can inform the penal system
  • 15. Health and Clinical Psychology Candidates should: • be able to describe and evaluate the areas below in the light of psychological theories, studies and evidence; • always seek to apply psychological methods, perspectives and issues; • actively seek to apply theory and evidence to the improvement of real-life events and situations; • explore social, moral, cultural and spiritual issues where applicable; • consider ways in which the core areas of psychology (cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, physiological psychology, social psychology and the psychology of individual differences), studied in the AS course, can inform our understanding of psychology and health.
  • 16. Healthy living There are many factors that influence our healthy lifestyles; these can include our beliefs about health and how healthy behaviour is promoted; an example of healthy behavior is adherence to medical advice Theories of health belief • HBM (eg Feshbeck); • Locus of control (eg Rotter); • Self efficacy (eg Bandura). Methods of health promotion and supporting evidence • Media campaign (eg Cowpe 1989); • Legislation (eg Maryland 1999); • Fear arousal (eg Janis & Feshbeck 1953). Features of adherence to medical regimes and supporting evidence • Reasons for non-adherence: cognitive rational non-adherence (eg Bulpitt); • Measures of non-adherence: physiological (eg Lustman 2000); • Improving – behavioural (eg Watt’s funhaler 2003). Stress Stress appears to be a major factor in the health of people, with psychologists interested in improving the health of the nation by identifying causes, and trying to encourage stress management techniques Causes of stress and supporting evidence • Work (eg Johansson 1978); • Hassles and life events (eg Kanner 1981); • Lack of control (eg Geer & Meisel 1973). Methods of measuring stress and supporting evidence • Physiological measures (eg Geer & Meisel 1973); • Self report (eg Holmes & Rahe 1967); • Combined approach (eg Johansson 1978). Techniques for managing stress and supporting evidence • Cognitive (eg SIT, Michenbaum 1975); • Behavioural (eg biofeedback, Budzynski 1973); • Social (eg social support, Waxler-Morrison 2006). Dysfunctional behaviour
  • 17. Rules and Marking at A2 Level The referral system in Psychology; If you fail to hand in your homework or it is of a poor quality, if you have poor attendance or if you display a poor attitude the following will happen: • 1st occasion – verbal warning by teacher • 2nd occasion – Written referral to Mrs Taylor-Crooke, Mr Cropper and a letter home. Compulsory support to catch up. • 3rd occasion – Written referral to Mrs Taylor-Crooke, Mr Cropper and a letter home inviting parents in for a meeting to discuss the situation. Compulsory support to catch up. This will operate on a half termly basis. How will your work be assessed? • You will be expected to complete two pieces of assessed work per sub-module. This will be marked with a strength/target and a grade. You will be expected to record this mark/grade in the tutorial part of this booklet and you are expected to comment on how you can improve. • The general grade boundaries are as follow: A = 80% B = 70% C = 60% D = 50% E = 40% • Any remaining homework will be marked with an effort grade which will range from A1 to D4 (A1 excellent D4 extremely poor.)
  • 18. File Scans • A file scan will be carried out by your psychology teachers approximately once every term. • You will be given written feedback on your organization and evidence of independent study. • Any student who teachers feel are not meeting the required standard will receive a letter home informing parents that improvement is needed. Revision Sessions: • Revision sessions will be available for all students in the lead up to the examinations in June. It is expected that all students attend. The sessions will take part 1 evening per week .Letters will be sent home informing parents of the revision session times and they will be advertised in the department.
  • 19. Key dates and deadlines G543 : …Applied 21st June (am)…………………………………………. G544: …Approaches and methods- 3rd Feb(pm)…. Guidelines on how to organise files I strongly advise you separate your folders into the following areas: 1) Introduction to A2 Psychology & Course overview booklet. 2) Approaches, perspectives, methods, issues and debates 3) Clinical and health Psychology – Healthy living 4) Clinical and Health Psychology –Stress 5) Clinical and Health Psychology– Dysfunctional behaviour 6) Clinical and Health Psychology – Disorders 7) Forensic Psychology – Turning to crime 8) Forensic Psychology- Making a case 9) Forensic Psychology- Reaching a verdict 10)Forensic Psychology- After a guilty Verdict. You will need a lever arch file.
  • 20. TIPS for independent learning/Revision It is strongly recommended that you read about the studies outside of lesson. The Gary Sturt website (see list) is an excellent resource which provides you with detailed & condensed accounts of each study. As a department we expect you to use such resources and add them to your file at least once per week per teacher. All the web pages listed are an excellent resource for revision. How to revise??????? • Produce mastersheets for studies • Index cards can be useful – put question on front & answer on back and test yourself • Use mind maps • Practice exam questions
  • 21. Assessment/tutorial grids Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achieved Comments/Areas for improvement …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achieved Comments/Areas for improvement …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • 22. Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achieved Comments/Areas for improvement …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achieved Comments/Areas for improvement …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • 23. Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achieved Comments/Areas for improvement …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achieved Comments/Areas for improvement …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • 24. Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achieved Comments/Areas for improvement …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Assess work Date of work …………………………. Topic………………………………………………….. Study/investigation/issue………………………………………………………………………. Grade achiev
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