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1. Imagine this...<br />The head teacher of a very large comprehensive school is concerned about anti-social behaviour in students aged 15-16. A psychologist is…
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  • 1. Imagine this...<br />The head teacher of a very large comprehensive school is concerned about anti-social behaviour in students aged 15-16. A psychologist is asked to investigate. The school has over 300 pupils in each year group. There are over 20 feeder primary schools. Some of these have outstanding standards. Others continue to experience problems with unruly pupils and uncooperative parents. Some but not all of these feeder schools are located in ‘high crime rate areas’ of the city. <br />How would the psychologist investigate? <br />What measures would they use? <br />What kind of data would they collect? <br />What would be their research design? <br />Any strengths or limitations? <br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 2. Turning to Crime: Upbringing<br />Who will influence us in our upbringing?<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 3. The Research<br />There are three studies that we will look to in order for us to better understand how upbringing effects people in turning to crime. &gt; Farrington et al., The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development<br /> &gt; Sutherland. Theory of Differential Association<br /> &gt; Wikstrom and Tafel, The Peterborough Youth Study<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 4. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />Farrington et al.’s research is longitudinal.<br />What does this mean?<br />What would be an advantage and disadvantage of this kind of research?<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 5. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />Farrington et al. Focused their research on just over 400 boys aged between 8 and 9, born in 1953/54. At the age of 48, the sample was researched again.<br />The study aimed to look at the start, duration and end of criminal behaviour as well as the influence of life events.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 6. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />The results point out a number of trends (see pages 9-10);&gt; At the age of 48, nearly 40% had committed a crime at some point in their lives.<br /> &gt; Those who had committed crimes between the ages of 10 – 13 were nearly all re-convicted in later life.<br /> &gt; 7% of the sample were termed “chronic offenders” as their criminal behaviour accounted for about half of all the offences recorded in this study. They committed crimes between the ages of 14 and 35.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 7. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />What would Farrington et al. want to find out about the experiences of these “chronic offenders”?<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 8. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />Chronic offenders shared common childhood characteristics:<br />More likely to have a convicted parent<br />More likely to be highly ‘daring’<br />More likely to have a delinquent sibling<br />More likely to have a young mother<br />More likely to be unpopular<br />More likely to have a ‘disrupted family’<br />More likely to have a large family<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 9. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />Farrington et al conclude that early prevention could impact various areas of offenders’ lives, which also become deviant; such as employment, relationships and alcohol/drugs.<br />What do you think is meant by “early prevention”?<br />What do you think were the most important risk factors that Farrington et al highlighted in their results?<br />**See page 73 for an example exam answer concerning this study.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 10. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />Comparatively, the proportion of men leading successful lives increased from 78% to 88% between the ages of 32 and 48.<br />Even chronic offenders increased their life success between these ages.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 11. Upbringing: Disrupted Families<br />Farrington summary:<br />Aim: To investigate the start, duration and end of criminal behaviour and the influence of life events; particularly intergenerational transmission.<br />Design: Longitudinal study<br />Participants: 411 boys aged 8-9 (born 1953/4) from the registers of 6 state schools in East London.<br />Method: Data gathered from criminal records and interviews at age 48.<br />Results: Farrington found those who committed a crime at age 10 -13 were more likely to have re-offended, 7% were defined as chronic offenders, and of these they were more likely to have come from “disrupted families” (i.e. Single parent, delinquent sibling, convicted parent)<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 12. Imagine this...<br />A psychologist is asked to investigate attitudes to criminal behaviour and their relationship to criminal activity. His sample is taken from students at the university. <br />How might he investigate this?<br />What measures would he use? <br />What kind of data would he collect? <br />What would be his research design? <br />What are the strengths or limitations of this? <br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 13. Upbringing: Learning From Others<br />Sutherland’s (1947) textbook “Principles of Criminology” lists nine principles which make up his theory of “differential association”.<br />In short, his theory proposes that through interaction with others, individuals can learn the values, attitudes, techniques and motives for criminal behaviour.<br />But as we all know, exam boards don’t like the short version...<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 14. What do you think...<br />How might Sutherland’s model describe learning from others as an explanation for why people turn to crime?<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 15. Turning to crime<br />Criminal behaviour is learned. Not inherited.<br />It is learned via interaction with others.<br />The largest influence comes from intimate personal groups.<br />Learning criminal behaviour in this way includes learning the tricks of the trade...<br />An individual is also influenced by what they regard as favourable or unfavourable (i.e. Pointless)laws<br />The principle of “differential association” comes into play with those who make repeated criminal links in their processing of laws.<br />Differential association (i.e. Contact with criminals or non-criminals) will vary.<br />Learning criminal behaviour by association is a process of learning like any other<br />Thus...criminal behaviour is an expression of needs and values but is not explained by needs and values as non-criminal behaviour is just the same<br />
  • 16. Upbringing: Learning From Others<br />Sutherland is using two core assumptions:1. Deviance occurs when people define that a situation is an appropriate time to violate social norms or laws.2. These situations are defined according to the individual’s past experience.<br />Sutherland argued it was important to look at the normal learning process in which a person decides whether or not a situation is more or less appropriate for deviant behaviour.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 17. Upbringing: Learning From Others<br />In twos or threes, generate some strengths and weaknesses of Sutherland’s model.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 18. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />The Peterborough Youth Study was designed to investigate government figures that showed those in the most disadvantaged 5% of the country were 100x more likely to have multiple problems than those in the advantaged 20%.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 19. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Design: Cross-sectional study (explain)<br />Sample: Nearly 2,000 14 – 15 year olds<br />Methodology: Interview and data collection<br />Aim: To investigate<br />what were the <br />significant predictors<br />of criminal behaviour<br />for youth in Peter-<br />borough.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 20. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Key findings from Wikstrom and Tafel include:<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 21. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Key findings from Wikstrom and Tafel include:<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 22. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Other findings from Wikstrom and Tafel include:<br /><ul><li>High frequency offenders commit a range of crimes.
  • 23. 1 in 8 were reported to or caught by the police for their last crime.
  • 24. Offenders are more victimised than non-offenders and more likely to be victims of violence.
  • 25. Offenders are more often drunk and use more drugs than other youths.</li></ul>Turning to crime<br />
  • 26. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />How might you explain these results?<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 27. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Which do you think are the most important risk factors for criminal activity? Rank them in order from 1 (the most important) to 5.<br /><ul><li>Family social position
  • 28. Individual characteristics
  • 29. Social situation
  • 30. Lifestyles and routine activities
  • 31. Community contexts</li></ul>Turning to crime<br />
  • 32. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Wikstrom and Tafel concluded that the most important was individual characteristics and the way that they lived their lives.<br />Key risk factors are weak family and school bonds as well as poor parental monitoring.<br />Social disadvantage was not a strong predictor, but those from a poor social background encountered a greater number of risk factors.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 33. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Wikstrom and Tafel proposed three groups of adolescent offenders:<br /><ul><li>Propensity-induced
  • 34. Lifestyle-dependent
  • 35. Situationally-limited</li></ul>See if you can come up with definitions of these with the person next to you.<br />Turning to crime<br />
  • 36. Upbringing: Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods<br />Wikstrom and Tafel proposed three groups of adolescent offenders:<br /><ul><li>Propensity-induced: linked to their individual characteristics.
  • 37. Lifestyle-dependent: linked to the type of lifestyle; high or low risk.
  • 38. Situationally-limited: linked to those who are well-adjusted, but may offend if the situation calls for it.</li></ul>Turning to crime<br />
  • 39. Prep<br />Read through pages 11 to 14 and use the “check your understanding” boxes on page 12 and 14 to answer the questions for your notes.<br />Turning to crime<br />
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    Jul 23, 2017
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