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1. pb@ntu 2. pb@ntu Source 51 The playing fields of England Bill: You know Kim Philby? Ben: No, who does he play for? Bill: He doesn't play for anyone, he was a spy.…
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  • 2. pb@ntu Source 51 The playing fields of England Bill: You know Kim Philby? Ben: No, who does he play for? Bill: He doesn't play for anyone, he was a spy. He joined the British secret service and then spied for the Russians. There was a whole gang of them. Burgess, McClean, Blunt and a few others as well, I reckon. They all went to smart public schools like Eton, and then went on to Oxford or Cambridge University. Ben: So, what about them? Bill: Well, what I want to know is, what makes someone become a spy? Ben: Oh, well its obvious. Some people are just born to be sneaky and devious. My brother Stig is a case in point. I've never been able to trust him from the moment he was born. Bill: Well, I don't reckon its that at all. I reckon its to do with how you're brought up. Psychologists distinguish between biological influences and social influences on the development of personality. 1. From the source, give ONE example of a biological explanation for the development of a spy. (1) 2. In the source, give ONE factor in the social development of the spies that might have influenced them (1) 3. (a) Describe ONE social or environmental approach to personality (3) (b) Describe ONE biological approach to personality (3)
  • 3. pb@ntu Source 52 Mismeasuring people The pictures are a part of the test used by an American psychologist to estimate the IQ of all the recruits to the forces during World War 1. Over one million people were tested and the results were published in 1921. The task is to say what is missing from the pictures, for example picture #1 has a mouth missing, and picture #14 has a shadow missing. The psychologist believed that the test was a measure of 'innate intelligence', and so when he discovered that recent immigrants to America did not score very well on the test he concluded that they had less intelligence than Americans and should be prevented from entering the country. 1. What was the test designed to measure? (1) 2. Give ONE intellectual skill that is measured by this test (1) 3. Give ONE other intellectual skill that is commonly measured by IQ tests, and suggest a sample question for testing this skill. 4. IQ tests are often biased towards one cultural group. This means that people from certain groups in a society are likely to score higher that people not in their group. Give TWO examples from the pictures which the immigrants would have found difficult. (2) 5. Give TWO other possible sources of bias that psychologists must try to avoid when inventing IQ tests (2)
  • 4. pb@ntu Source 53 QVC: the one to watch NEW FROM SCOOBY ENTERPRISES (The Company that Measures the Mind) The PSYCHOMEASURE INTELLIGENCE TEST For only three simple payments o £19.99 (plus P&P) you can have the equipment to measure the intelligence of your friends, employees, teachers etc. Easy to use and quick to analyse, the PSYCHOMEASURE offers the ideal alternative to time consuming I.Q. tests. All you have to do is to place the PSYCHOMEASURE around the forehead of the subject and read off the intelligence score. Validity refers to whether a test measures the quality that it sets out to measure. Reliability refers to whether the test gives a consistent measure of someone's performance. 1. Which of the following statements best describes the PSYCHOMEASURE INTELLIGENCE TEST? Put a tick against your answer. (1) (a) The test is reliable and valid ... (b) The test is reliable but not valid ... (c) The test is valid but not reliable ... (d) The test is neither reliable or valid ... 2. Describe one way that you could assess the reliability of the PSYCHOMEASURE test (2) 3. Describe one way that you could assess the validity of the PSYCHOMEASURE test. (2) 4. Most I.Q. tests have a bias in them that gives certain people better scores than others. Describe ONE bias in the PSYCHOMEASURE INTELLIGENCE TEST (2)
  • 5. pb@ntu Source 54 Obituary of Konrad Lorenz (1903 - 1989) The famous psychologist, Konrad Lorenz, was born in 1903, the son of a rich and well known Austrian surgeon. He became fascinated by animals as a boy, and was able to explore his interest at the family home at Alternberg. He was able to keep a large number of animals at the house. The wealth of his family meant that Lorenz was able to pursue his studies of animals for many years without obtaining a paid job. When the Nazis invaded Austria in 1938, Lorenz went along with the ideas of the Nazis and wrote an article supporting the Nazi idea for breeding a master race and eliminating people that, they believed, were not fit to live. As part of this policy, the Nazis killed many Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals and the mentally ill. Lorenz never did a formal experiment in his career of studying animals, but relied on his accurate and descriptive observations to build up his theories. Despite his past and his lack of formal evidence for his work, Lorenz remained a popular figure until his death in 1989, partly because of his extraordinary personal charm and his enthusiasm. It was a strange contradiction that a man who showed such compassion and care towards animals should have supported such an inhumane and cruel policy towards people. Psychologists suggest that there are a number of influences on the way our personality develops. These influences can be divided into three categories; (a) Biological (features in our physical make-up) (b) Situational (features in our environment) (c) Social (features in friendships and relationships) 1. How is Lorenz's personality described? (1) 2. From the source, give one example of how a situational feature, and one example of how a social feature might have affected the development of Lorenz's personality (a) Situational (1) (b) Social (1) 3. The obituary of Lorenz can be seen as a case study, in which a detailed description is made of one person. Give ONE problem and ONE advantage of the case study method. 4. Name and describe a theory of personality. 5. How would your theory describe how the personality of Konrad Lorenz developed? (2)
  • 6. pb@ntu Source 55 IQ tests The first large scale IQ testing programme was carried out on American recruits for the First World War. The tests were designed by Yerkes who believed that they measured a person's natural intellectual ability. Below are three examples from the test: "Washington is to Adams, as first is to ........" "What is 'Crisco'? is it a) a patent medicine b) a disinfectant c) a toothpaste d) a food product" "Christy Mathewson is famous as a) a writer b) an artist c) a baseball player d) a comedian?" Yerkes found from his results that recent immigrants to America did not do very well on the test. He thought that their poor scores were due to a low natural intelligence, and supported the introduction of immigration laws to keep out the "feeble minded". 1. What was Yerkes trying to measure with his test? (1) 2. It is likely that you do not know the answers to the questions. Why not? (1) 3. What do you think that questions like these measure? (2) 4. What conclusions did Yerkes come to about immigrants? (1) 5. What is a more likely conclusion? (2) 6. Using examples from psychometric tests you have studied, give two problems with the attempt to measure personal characteristics.
  • 7. pb@ntu Source 56 In Shakespeare’s play, Julius Caesar says: "Let me have men about me that are fat; sleek headed men, such as sleep o' nights. Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look; he thinks too much; such men are dangerous... Would he were fatter" (Act I, Scene 2) Above are diagrams showing the body types identified by Kretschmer and Sheldon. They attempted to match up body build to specific personality characteristics. A short, plump person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed and even-tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was said to be restrained, self conscious and fond of solitude; a heavy-set, muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, aggressive and physically active. 1. Which one of the three body types does Caesar want around him? (1) 2. How does Caesar describe Cassius? (1) 3. What body type is Cassius? (1) 4. Describe two ways in which the shape of our body might affect our personality. 5. Name and describe another theory of personality. 6. How does this theory explain the personality of Cassius
  • 8. pb@ntu Source 57 Granny gamblers Hilda is a pensioner who lives alone in rented accommodation in Birmingham. Nothing remarkable about that, but Hilda is a compulsive gambler. Every spare moment, and every spare penny is spent on fruit machines and one-arm-bandits. For most pensioners it is difficult to get by on the state pension, but for Hilda it is impossible. Hilda has to take on part-time jobs to pay for her addiction. When asked why she gambles so much Hilda says: "Well ducks, I often win. I never know when I am going to win, but I do win, and that’s the excitement of it - not knowing when the jackpot is going to come up." News report from the Daily Planet. 1. Why does Hilda spend so much money on the fruit machines? (1) 2. Partial reinforcement is when a response is reinforced only some of the times it occurs, whereas continuous reinforcement is when a response is reinforced every time it occurs. What is the partial reinforcement that Hilda is receiving (2) 3. Why is partial reinforcement more successful in encouraging behaviour than continuous reinforcement? (2) 4. What schedule of reinforcement best describes the pay-outs of a fruit machine? Put a tick against one of the four possible answers.(1) ___ variable interval ___ fixed ratio ___ variable ratio ___ fixed interval 5. Describe one way that a psychologist would help Hilda with her addiction. (2)
  • 9. pb@ntu Source 58 Look after your nuts In its natural habitat a squirrel picks a nut, climbs down to the ground, and searches for a place at the bottom of the tree or a large boulder. At the base of landmarks like these, it will scratch a hole with its front paws, and then place dirt in the hole. The nut is then rammed into place with rapid pushes by its nose, covered with dirt by sweeping motions and then patted down by the front paws. In a study carried out by Eibl-Eibesfeldt, a squirrel was hand-raised in isolation, and fed only on liquids in a cage with a bare floor, it had no opportunity to learn the nut burying behaviour. It could not observe another squirrel burying nuts, nor could it practice how to bury food. Also, it did not experience times of hunger so it did not learn the value of burying food where it could be easily found. Eibl-Eibesfeldt tested a hand-raised squirrel when it was fully grown and claimed that it was able to perform the nut burying behaviour at the first attempt. When he gave it some nuts, it first ate some until it was full, and then it carried round any additional nuts in its mouth as if it were looking for something. At the corner of the room, the squirrel put down the nut, pushed it into the corner with its nose and then made the patting down movements with its fore-paws, although it did not dig a hole. 1. A fixed action pattern is a rigid stereotyped behaviour that is usually a response to a simple sign. Describe the behaviour of the squirrel that is a fixed action pattern? (2) 2. What is the sign stimulus that starts the behaviour of the squirrel? (1) 3. What evidence is there that the behaviour of the squirrel is innate? (3) 4. What evidence is there that at least some of the nut burying behaviour may be learned? (3)
  • 10. pb@ntu Source 59 The story of little Albert Just before his first birthday 'little Albert' was subjected to the procedures of classical conditioning by John Watson. Watson was hoping to train Albert to fear a white rat. Watson made a loud noise (a hammer on metal) and found that this noise upset Albert. He then made the noise every time he saw Albert touch the rat. After just seven repetitions of this procedure, Albert started to show a fear response to the rat. Watson also found that Albert showed a similar fear response to a white rabbit, a dog, a sealskin coat and to Watson's hair. After a week, Albert was tested again, this time in a different room, and now he did not show much of a fear reaction to any of the animals or the coat. After a further month, Albert was tested again back in the original room and he showed a fear reaction to the rat, rabbit, dog and coat, and also to a Santa Claus mask. After this, Albert's mother removed him from the hospital where the experiments had been carried out. 1. In the training of Little Albert to fear the rat, what was: (a) the unconditioned stimulus? (1) (b) the unconditioned response? (1) (c) the conditioned stimulus? (1) 2. Albert learned to fear the rat, but why did he also fear the rabbit? (2) 3. Suggest one reason why Albert did not show so much fear when tested a week later? (2) 4. Describe how Albert could have been trained to lose his fear of the animals? (3)
  • 11. pb@ntu Source 60 Top chicken An observation was made of chicken's eating behaviour. The observers marked and named the chickens so that they could be individually recognised. They recorded how often each chicken appeared to be displaced from the food supply by another chicken. They found that some chickens were often pushed away, whereas other chickens were rarely challenged and pushed away by the other chickens. Below is a graph showing how often each of the chickens were displaced from the food. BAR CHART SHOWING THE NUMBER OF TIMES EACH CHICKEN WAS DISPLACED FROM FOOD BY ANOTHER CHICKEN Dave Dee Dozy Beaky Mick Tich 0 4 8 12 16 20 number of times each chicken was displaced in one day 1 Which chicken appeared to be the most dominant? (1) 2 If there was a food shortage for the chickens what do you think would happen to (a) Tich Chicken? (b) Mick Chicken? (1) 3 A social system where some animals are dominant over others is called a 'pecking order'. Why do some animals have a pecking order? (3) 4 How might a psychologist apply the idea of a pecking order to human behaviour? (2) 5 What are the problems in applying animal behaviour like this to the study of people? (6)
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