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1. Social Psychology: Social Influence <ul><li>“ Social” refers the interaction between members of the same species.…
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  • 1. Social Psychology: Social Influence <ul><li>“ Social” refers the interaction between members of the same species. </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychologists are interested in the way people affect each other. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social Influence” </li></ul><ul><li>refers to the influence of a group; majority influence ( conformity) </li></ul><ul><li>or the influence of an individual; minority influence or obedience. </li></ul><ul><li>Social influence can result in a change in the thinking, attitudes or behaviour of others . </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of an everyday example of :- </li></ul><ul><li>MAJORITY INFLUENCE (CONFORMITY)? </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion Trends </li></ul><ul><li>MINORITY INFLUENCE? </li></ul><ul><li>Political and Religious Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>OBEDIENCE? </li></ul><ul><li>Complying with the demands of an authority figure, </li></ul><ul><li>such as an army officer. </li></ul>
  • 2. Conformity <ul><li>Is conformity desirable? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people conform? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jenness (1932): informational social influence – jelly beans in jar – students conformed looking to others for information (guesses shifted towards group norm – as in our replication?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asch (1955): normative social influence – student conformed to be accepted by group. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deutsch and Gerard (1955) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first to identify informational and normative influence (see handouts & highlight) </li></ul></ul>KEY TERM MOSTLY YES NO BUT SOME- TIMES
  • 3. X A B C RESEARCH EVIDENCE: Asch (1951, 1956): example of conformity. Line X is clearly not the same as line A – but… When everyone in a group of confederates agreed that X and A were the same, the true participants agreed with them 37% of the time
  • 5. Which type of influence is at work in the following clip ~ Normative or Informational?
  • 6. C O N F O R M I T Y P O S T E R or P O W E R P O I N T P R E S E N T A T I O N <ul><li>Work in groups of 2/3 to complete a poster entitled:- </li></ul><ul><li>“ THE GOOD THE BAD AND CONFORMITY” </li></ul><ul><li>Use clip-art, drawings and/or cuttings from magazines to illustrate the three types of conformity: </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATIONAL , NORMATIVE & REFERENT </li></ul><ul><li>Try to find examples of positive and negative aspects of the various types of conformity. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how each example of behaviour ‘fits’ the particular theory of conformity. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to include definitions, theories & EVIDENCE from research studies – use study summaries, handouts and textbooks to help you. </li></ul><ul><li>Present to class explaining ‘in psychological terms’ your interpretation of the behaviour illustrated on your poster. </li></ul>Activity 1
  • 7. L2 CONFORMITY - RECAP (A change in behaviour or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure (Zimbardo 1995)) People may conform because of …….. INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE:- Motivation: Not to look stupid – to be right. They may believe in the superior knowledge or judgement of others. This leads people to change their PRIVATE opinion which is known as:- (INTERNALISATION) NORMATIVE INFLUENCE:- Motivation: They may wish to be liked, respected and accepted by other members of the group. People do not always change their PRIVATE opinion but will go along anyway which is known as:- (COMPLIANCE) REFERENT INFLUENCE:- Motivation: To identify with the stereotypical image of a group. This leads to a temporary change in opinion which lasts as long as you are a member of the group, this is:- (IDENTIFICATION) KEY STUDY:- ZIMBARDO ( 1971) Stanford Prison Experiment
  • 8. I A tea cup was used to simulate the distorted voice of a bomber pilot talking on a radio, and the reverberating sound of the Martian cylinder opening, achieved by the unscrewing of a jamjar in a toilet bowl! Orson Welles arrives . As the broadcast begins, concern begins to grow amongst listeners Armed residents of Grover's Mill open fire on a water tower thinking it is a Martian tripod. Welles and his players are unaware of the unfolding drama outside, as calls begin to flood the studio switchboard Finally, as the broadcast ends, Police flood the control booth as the situation outside becomes apparent.
  • 9. Conformity Activity <ul><li>On 3 sides/pieces of plain A4 paper </li></ul><ul><li>Define and illustrate the three types of conformity ( normative, informational and referent ) – you can illustrate using pictures from magazines, or drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the motivation behind the behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise the difference between each type of conformity (hint Compliance or Internalisation, permanent or temporary? ) </li></ul><ul><li>Use a relevant piece of research to give supporting evidence to the explanation each type of conformity – and evaluate this research (+ & - points if possible) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate each type of conformity by stating a positive and negative outcome of each type of conformity, can it be good? </li></ul><ul><li>To make sure you don’t miss any points – use sub headings i.e. 1. Motivation, 2. Difference between this and other types of conformity, 3. Research Evidence, 4. Evaluation of evidence, 5. Positive and negative aspects of this type of conformity </li></ul>
  • 10. Minority Influence <ul><li>A majority being influenced to accept the beliefs or behaviour of a minority . This usually involves a change in private opinion, as the majority needs to accept the minority as “right” if they are to reject the dominant majority. This private change involves a process of conversion , which is more likely to occur when the minority is consistent and flexible , as this is more persuasive. This idea forms the basis of: </li></ul><ul><li>DUAL PROCESS THEORY Moscovici (1976, 1980, 1985): it is possible for a minority to influence a majority through conversion . The conditions under which this can occur are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency of minority opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility of minority, who must not appear rigid and dogmatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment of minority opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance of minority opinion in respect of social trends </li></ul></ul>L3
  • 11. Minority Influence: Other theories/processes involved <ul><li>SELF CATEGORIZATION THEORY David & Turner 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>We are more likely to be influenced by those we think are like ourselves or in a ‘group’ we belong to i.e. females, black, poor etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL IMPACT THEORY Latané and Wolf (1981) </li></ul><ul><li>in which an individual’s behaviour in any situation can be predicted in terms of three factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength (the strength of belief and consistency of the message) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status and knowledge (Powerful individuals and people with expert knowledge have greater influence ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity (the closer you are to the individual the more of an effect the message will have) </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Important Influences on Conformity CHIGGUT - D <ul><li>Cultural factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies in other countries (are some societies more conforming than others?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism and collectivism (Western and Eastern Societies are different) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical factors (Societies change over time examples – slavery, servants) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality / Age / Level of self esteem / Independence . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender differences (Women seen as being more conformist - Eagly) </li></ul><ul><li>Group Size. (larger the group – stronger the pressure to conform) </li></ul><ul><li>Unanimity (not being on your own) </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Task (More difficult the task more likely conformity will occur.) </li></ul><ul><li>Deindividuation (e.g. putting on a uniform) </li></ul><ul><li>These influences can make an individual </li></ul><ul><li>more OR less likely to Conform. </li></ul>L4
  • 13. When Asch’s study was replicated, cross-cultural differences emerged (32% in original trial)
  • 14. RESISTING SOCIAL INFLUENCE <ul><li>Situational factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are more likely to resist if they have an ally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rebellion Anti-conformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamson et al. (1982) (see handout) Found that 97% of groups showed dissent and 50% completely rebelled to unfair requests from authority figures – groups provide support to express dissent and justify rebellion, (though some may have just been conforming to the group behaviour!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People will react against attempt to restrict or control their personal decisions. Venkatesan (1966) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education, Age, Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence (Krech et al 1962) – Independent people are more intelligent, less anxious and self aware. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-conformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberately going against the majority – Eccentricity </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. HOMEWORK <ul><li>Finish off posters/story, hand in next Friday </li></ul><ul><li>Revise for test on Monday (Test will be on what you have learned so far. I.E. Social Influence:- Types of conformity, Minority influence (Social impact theory etc.) Research studies (Zimbado, Asch & Moscovici APFCC) </li></ul><ul><li>See Key Study Guide for studies and relevant definitions to learn. </li></ul>Hwk
  • 16. Obedience to Authority L6 Behaving as instructed, usually in response to individuals direct order rather than group pressure
  • 17. Why Do People Obey? <ul><li>Situational explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligitimate Authority (subject believes person is an expert or has the authority or right to order them around). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated commitment ‘Foot in the door’ method. (Once subject has agreed to a small request they feel obliged to agree to further requests). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agentic state (agency theory) (acting as the agent for an authority figure) They do not feel responsible for their actions and use the authority figure as an excuse for their actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dispositional explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian personality (Strict upbringing leads to hostility to out groups and submissive attitude to authority figures). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passivity (A dislike for confrontation – so will obey to avoid it) </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. L7 Our news team tonight looks at the results of some recent interesting & unnerving psychological research and asks … HAS PSYCHOLOGY GONE TOO FAR? 3
  • 19. Critical Issue: Ethical Issues in Social Influence Research <ul><li>Milgram’s experiment raised awareness of ethical issues, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deception (Handling the deception issue – Debriefing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to withdraw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protection from harm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical guidelines These can be adhered to by referring to, or using:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The BPS code of conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost – benefit analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural comparisons </li></ul></ul>Ethical = Consideration of what is acceptable or right behaviour in pursuit of a particular personal or scientific goal. (Cardwell 1996) Unethical = A practice that is morally wrong and professionally unacceptable i.e. does not follow BPS ethical guidelines
  • 21. A class of primary children started a class project to make a plant pot to take home.  The teacher wanted to have a plant in it that was easy to take care of, so it was decided to use cactus plants.  The children were given greenware pottery in the style of a clown plant pot.  They painted them with glaze and had them professionally fired at a class outing so they could see the process. It was great fun.  They planted the cactus seeds in the finished planters and they grew nicely. Unfortunately, however, they were not allowed to take them home.  The cactus plants were removed, replaced with a small ivy, and the children were then allowed to take them home.  The teacher said cactus seemed like a good idea at the time... ETHICS IN TEACHING
  • 22. Key Term: Conformity/Majority Influence <ul><li>This occurs when people adopt the behaviour, attitudes, or values of the majority. </li></ul><ul><li>In NORMATIVE conformity people may publicly yield to group pressure although they may not always agree privately (compliance). The motivation for this type of conformity is a desire to be accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>In INFORMATIONAL conformity people conform because of a belief that others have superior knowledge or judgement. In this case their private opinion coincides with their public opinion (internalisation). The motivation for this type of conformity is a desire to be right. </li></ul><ul><li>In REFERENT conformity people conform to a perceived ‘role’. Acting like a prison guard. The motivation for this type of conformity is (identification) with the group. </li></ul><ul><li>(Highlight these definitions on your handout) </li></ul>
  • 23. Key Term: Deception <ul><li>This is an ethical guideline, which states that deception of the participants during the research process should be avoided wherever possible. Deception refers to the withholding of information that might affect the participant’s decision to take part in the research. It is an issue because this might lead to psychological harm. Deception is a particularly common issue because the withholding of the research hypothesis is often considered necessary in order to avoid demand characteristics </li></ul>
  • 24. Key Term: Ecological validity <ul><li>The validity of the research outside the research situation itself; the extent to which the findings are generalisable to other situations, especially “everyday” situations. The question is whether you would get the same findings in a different setting or whether they are limited to the original research context. If the latter is true then there is a lack of ecological validity </li></ul>
  • 25. Key Term: Ethical guidelines <ul><li>A written code of conduct designed to aid psychologists when designing and running their research. The guidelines set out standards of what is and is not acceptable. The code focuses on the need to treat participants with respect and to not cause them harm or distress. For example, the BPS code of conduct advises of “the need to preserve an overriding high regard for the well-being and dignity of research participants” (BPS , 1993) </li></ul>
  • 26. Key Term: Ethical issues <ul><li>Ethical issues arise in carrying out research when there is conflict between how the research should be carried out (e.g., with no deception to the participants) and the methodological consequences of observing this (e.g., reduced validity of the findings). </li></ul><ul><li>Another issue the debate as to whether it is justifiable to infringe upon the rights of participants if the research will be of benefit to society? </li></ul>
  • 27. Key Term: Experimental validity <ul><li>The extent to which research has internal and external validity. Internal validity refers to the extent to which the experiment measured what it set out to, i.e. , is the observed effect in the DV a result of the manipulation of the IV? External validity refers to the generalisability of the findings to other settings (ecological validity), populations (population validity), or periods in time (temporal validity). Any threats to internal or external validity reduce the meaningfulness of the findings </li></ul>
  • 28. Key Term: Informed consent <ul><li>This is an ethical guideline, which states that participants’ agreement to take part in research should be based on their full knowledge of the nature and purpose of the research. Thus, they should be made aware of any tasks required of them and their right to withdraw , and any other aspects of the research that might affect their willingness to participate </li></ul>
  • 29. Key Term: Minority influence <ul><li>A majority being influenced to accept the beliefs or behaviour of a minority . This usually involves a change in private opinion, as the majority needs to accept the minority as “right” if they are to reject the dominant majority. This private change involves a process of conversion , which is more likely to occur when the minority is consistent and flexible , as this
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