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1. Applying attributional error to eye witness testimony <ul><li>Always remember we are not talking about a conscious bias but a sub conscious tendency…
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  • 1. Applying attributional error to eye witness testimony <ul><li>Always remember we are not talking about a conscious bias but a sub conscious tendency </li></ul>
  • 2. Hedonic relevance <ul><li>When something is of relevance to you personally you are more likely to attribute causality to dispositional factors </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>If it is not of importance to you you would be more likely to attribute causality to situational things </li></ul><ul><li>Example:- </li></ul><ul><li>suppose you were a witness to a car smashing into your garden wall you would be likely to recall the car as driving too fast </li></ul><ul><li>(dispositionally attributing cause to the driver) </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>If you saw the car go into somebody else's wall you are more likely to say there where icy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>( attributing causality situationally) </li></ul>
  • 3. Fundamental attributional error <ul><li>The tendency to attribute dispositionally when it is someone else </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>You attribute situational factors when it is yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Eg </li></ul><ul><li>Suppose you were the witness to a work accident were someone badly hurt their back, on a wet floor </li></ul><ul><li>If you see someone else slip on a floor you may say they ignored the wet floor sign and rushed across the floor </li></ul><ul><li>(attributing the cause dispositionally) </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>If it had been you yourself you may say the sign was not in a place it was easy to see, and there was way more water on the floor than necessary </li></ul><ul><li>(attributing cause situationally) </li></ul>
  • 4. Ways it may affect the testimony <ul><li>The bias may manifest itself in the following ways when you are dispositionaly attributing cause to another person .You may have a tendency to over emphasize things like:- </li></ul><ul><li>The level of violence </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of the car </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of care they seemed to take </li></ul>
  • 5. The ways it affects testimony cont <ul><li>But when talking about yourself you may over emphasize situational things like </li></ul><ul><li>How foggy it was </li></ul><ul><li>How many obstacles were there </li></ul><ul><li>How badly placed warnings were </li></ul>
  • 6. Points to remember <ul><li>Always remember its not deliberate </li></ul><ul><li>Always remember the two sides to it ie :- </li></ul><ul><li>When talking about others </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>When talking about self </li></ul><ul><li>And most importantly always remember to use examples relating to eye witness testimony although in your original description of the error you may want to use an every day example so the EWT point stands out more clearly </li></ul>
  • 7. Task and Practice <ul><li>Students tend to do very badly on this question so you need to embed the knowledge and practice writing out the explanations. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the dolls provided in groups act out your own scenario of hedonic relevance and Fundamental attribution error affecting EWT </li></ul>
  • 8. Describe how Hedonic relevance may affect the accuracy of a witness recall (6 marks) <ul><li>Hedonic relevance is the tendency to attribute dispositionally (3 rd party) when something is of personal relevance to you </li></ul><ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>Use an every day example to describe hedonic relevance itself </li></ul><ul><li>State the eye witness scenario you intend to use first </li></ul><ul><li>Say its not intentional </li></ul><ul><li>Apply fully to an ewt example </li></ul><ul><li>Use the words dispositional and situational a lot </li></ul>
  • 9. Describe how Fundamental attributional error may affect the accuracy of a witness recall (6 marks) <ul><li>Fundamental attributional error is when we attribute cause dispositionally for others but situationally for yourself . </li></ul><ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>Use an every day example to describe FAE </li></ul><ul><li>State the eye witness scenario you intend to use first </li></ul><ul><li>Say its not intentional </li></ul><ul><li>Apply fully to an ewt example </li></ul><ul><li>Use the words dispositional and situational a lot </li></ul>
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