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1. Language Development Chomsky (1957) 2. Language development in children. http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/ language_development.shtml Write down some…
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  • 1. Language Development Chomsky (1957)
  • 2. Language development in children. http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/ language_development.shtml Write down some key features for each stage of language development.
  • 3. Chomsky’s ‘Language Acquisition Device’. ❖ We are born with a LAD, a genetic predisposition to learn language. ❖ He disputed Skinner’s claims about the role of learning and reinforcement in language acquisition. ❖ All languages have certain sounds in common and nouns and verbs.
  • 4. Maturation and genetics. ❖ We learn surface structure (the sounds, words and phrases, the syntax). ❖ Deep structure is innate (the desire to communicate our ideas, the meaning). ❖ Transformational grammar is also innate (The ability to combine units of it into words) ❖ Why do we all pass through the same stages of language learning at the same time?
  • 5. Motor development and language development. ❖ Is there a correlation between the two? ❖ Yes! E.H. Lenneberg found that in both ‘normal’ and Down’s syndrome children, there was a positive correlation between motor development and language development. ❖ Motor skills are obviously determined by maturation, perhaps speech is too!
  • 6. Different types of Language ❖ Language is part of human nature. ❖ Languages can sound strange to us or look different. Yet they share thought, proposition, spatial relationships and objects. ❖ Darwin ‘Man has an instinctive tendency to speak as we see in the babble of our young children while no child has an instinctive tendency to bake, rule or write’ ❖ Children can create new languages from adult’s multi language systems.
  • 7. What does Language allow us to do? ❖ ‘The pig is eager to eat’ vs ‘the pig is easy to it’. ❖ ‘Bill knew that John liked him’. ❖ ‘Bill knew that John liked himself ’. ❖ These are examples of syntax. ❖ Make up some sentences that you have never heard before and no one else on this planet has heard before.
  • 8. Rules! Chomsky type analysis. ❖ A sentence (S) consists of a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). ❖ A small boy helped the girl. ❖ Article, Adjective, Noun, Verb, Noun Phrase (Article and Noun).
  • 9. Try these! ❖ Cleaning ladies can be delightful. ❖ Shaving men can be dangerous.
  • 10. What exactly is Chomsky arguing?
  • 11. Main ideas. ❖ Children are born with the ability to learn the rules for transforming meaning into syntax. Deep structure into various surface structure. ❖ Linguistic universals (consonants, vowels, syllables, etc) provide the deep structure. ❖ How can children learn languages that are sometimes incomplete and lack grammar? ❖ How competent are you? That would depend on memory, attention, your nervous system and so on!
  • 12. What evidence is there to support Chomsky’s LAD?
  • 13. Evidence ❖ The human vocal organs: breathing apparatus, auditory system, and brain are all specialised for spoken communication. ❖ Phonetic discriminations. ❖ Linguistic universals. ❖ Congenitally deaf children show ‘gestural language’.
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