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1. pb@ntu 2. pb@ntu Source 61 Twelve slightly annoyed people Psychologists were interested in the factors that might affect the selection of a person to act as foreman in…
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  • 1. pb@ntu
  • 2. pb@ntu Source 61 Twelve slightly annoyed people Psychologists were interested in the factors that might affect the selection of a person to act as foreman in a jury. Groups of twelve people were sent to a room to think about a trial they had witnessed, and to decided if the defendant was guilty. When they entered the room they had a choice of seats around a table that had one seat at either end and five seats on either side. end corner X X X corner flank X X flank middle X X middle flank X X flank corner X X X corner end They described the various positions on the table as shown in the diagram. There are four types of position at the table; (a) at the ends of the table (b) at the corners of the table (c) on the flanks, next to the corner positions (d) in the middle Once they had sat down the jurors had to elect a foreman. They observed 69 groups of jurors and found that the foreman was picked in the following way; POSITION NUMBER OF TIMES PICKED AS FOREMAN end 32 corner 22 flank 10 middle 5 1. Which seating position was most likely to be picked as jury foreman? (1) 2. Which position was least likely to be picked as jury foreman? (1) 3. Describe two reasons why the seating position at the table would affect the choice of foreman (4) 4. Describe another social situation where the seating position would affect the behaviour of the people (2)
  • 3. pb@ntu Source 62 As easy as falling off a cliff The classic visual cliff experiment was designed by Gibson and Walk to examine the ability of young animals to see depth. The picture shows the apparatus which has a deep side and a shallow side. Both sides are safe to cross because of the thick transparent sheet that covers the apparatus, but one side looks more dangerous if you can see depth. They obtained the following results: BAR CHART SHOWING THE PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS THAT WOULD CRAWL ACROSS THE VISUAL CLIFF ON THE DEEP SIDE chickens rats turtles goats infants 0 20 40 60 80 100 pecentage choosing shallow side The bar chart shows the percentage of subjects who chose the 'shallow' side in preference to the 'deep' side of the cliff. 1. Which groups of subjects chose the shallow side more than any others? (1) 2. Which subjects chose the shallow side less than any others? (1) 3. Why would these animals go over the deep side when most of the others would not? (2) 4. What do the results of this study tell us about the perception of depth in six month old babies? (3) 5. Give three problems with investigating the perceptual abilities of babies? (3)
  • 4. pb@ntu Source 63 Judging Distance 1. Depth cues are pieces of visual information that help us judge how far away an object is. The picture shows a car in a large car-park. Draw a similar car so that it looks much further away. Label your diagram to show at least three of the depth cues you have used to make your car look further away. (6) 2. Imagine that your picture has been shown to someone who has been brought up in a rain forest (so has never seen objects in the distance) and had no formal education. How might she describe your picture, and what would she say about the second car? (2)
  • 5. pb@ntu Source 64 Bartlett's Method of Successive Reproduction Frederic Bartlett developed a technique for investigating memory known as successive (or serial) reproduction. People were asked, in this method, to recall the same material several times. There were two ways of doing this - (i) one person was asked to reproduce the same material at several different times after learning it, or (ii) a chain of people passed on what they remembered to each other. For example, one person might be shown a picture and asked to remember it. After some time this person would be asked to draw the picture from memory. A second person would then be given the first person's drawing and asked to remember it and then draw it, and so on. The diagram shows a typical result. The original picture of an owl was gradually transformed into a picture of a cat. 1. What is the method of successive (or serial) reproductions? (1) 2. How did the picture change? (1) 3. Some theories suggest that we record information like a tape recorder and we can recall accurately what we see or hear. However, what does this study of successive reproduction tell us about how we store and remember material? (2) 4. Describe two factors that might affect our memory of an event. (4)
  • 6. pb@ntu Source 65 The brain 1. The diagram below is only partly labelled. Each label should have three parts, for the name of the area of the brain, secondly the function of that area, and thirdly a line linking the label to the appropriate area of the diagram. Fill in the missing parts – three lines and three functions. (9) CEREBELLUM THALAMUS MOTOR CORTEX function function function muscle tone relay for sensory control of voluntary body balance information movement co-ordination of mediates cortical voluntary movement activation BRAIN STEM HYPOTHALAMUS CORPUS CALLOSUM function function function
  • 7. pb@ntu Source 66a IQ testing In the early days of IQ testing, a person's IQ was calculated by comparing their mental age with their physical age (chronological age). The following equation was used; IQ = Mental Age / Physical Age x 100 1. If Cyril was 5 years old and had a mental age of 4, what would be his IQ? (1) 2. If Tracy was 7 years old and had an IQ of 100, what was her mental age? (1) 3. How could a psychologist estimate the mental age of a child? Source 66b Measuring Intelligence In an early study by Cyril Burt, he measured the intelligence of a number of boys from different social classes by asking various people to rank the boys in order of intelligence. The boys were ranked by putting them in order from most intelligent to least intelligent. He obtained these rankings from headmasters, teachers and two 'impartial boys'. Burt obtained the judgement of intelligence from the two 'impartial boys' by asking the following question; "Suppose you had to choose a leader for an expedition into an unknown country, which of these 30 boys would you select as the most intelligent? Failing him, which next?" Burt found that the boys from the upper-classes were judged 'more intelligent' than the other boys. He said that the environment had no effect, and that this result 'demonstrated that intelligence is inherited'. 4. How did Burt estimate the intelligence of the boys? (1) 5. What quality are the two impartial boys using to judge intelligence? (1) 6. Some psychologists say that intelligence is made up of a number of different skills. A good memory is often seen as one of these skills. Give four other skills that are seen as part of intelligence. (4) 7. Burt said that the differences in the boys were due to heredity. Describe two environmental influences that would have made the upper-class boys appear more intelligent. (4)
  • 8. pb@ntu Source 67 The Personality Circle Eysenck believes that two of the dimensions that can be used to classify people are (i) stable - unstable, and (ii) extravert - introvert. The Personality Circle shows how these two dimensions can be visually presented. Astrologers believe that people can be categorised by the sign they are born under. They believe that all people born under a particular sign share certain personality characteristics. For example, Capricorns; People who are born under the star sign of Capricorn tend to be quiet, reserved, rigid, passive and careful. Librans; People who are born under the star sign of Libra tend to be touchy, aggressive, impulsive and optimistic. 1. According to the Personality Circle, Capricorns are introverted though neither stable or unstable. How would the Personality Circle describe Librans? (2) 2. What is the similarity between Eysenck's Personality Circle and astrological personality sketches? (1) 3. Give two problems with Eysenck's approach to personality 4. Name and describe one other approach to the study of personality. (8)
  • 9. pb@ntu Source 68 Defensible Space In his work on defensible space, Oscar Newman claims that certain buildings are more prone to vandalism and crime because of their design. Two of the features that reduce crime and vandalism are (a) zones of territorial influence and (b) opportunities for surveillance. (a) Zones of territorial influence; refer to areas which appear to belong to someone. However, in some buildings there are entrances which appear to be 'semi-public' and nobody's particular territory. It is the semi-public areas that are more likely to be vandalised. (b) Opportunities for surveillance; for example, if there is a window overlooking an area then any vandalism could be witnessed by one of the residents. Areas that are not overlooked by any windows have more crime and vandalism. 1. On the diagrams of the tower block and the deck access building put an S where you think there is no opportunity for surveillance, and a P where you think there is a semi-public area that is likely to be vandalised. (4) The example shows a gallery access block, and has a P at the entrance to the stairs because all the tenants in the upper floors use these, and an S around the side of the block because there are no windows there. 2(a). Give the reason for your choice of the position for the P and S on the Deck Access P – reason (1) S – reason (1)
  • 10. pb@ntu 2(a). Give the reason for your choice of the position for the P and S on the Deck Access P – reason (1) S – reason (1) 3. Give one example of how people mark out their territory in an urban setting. (2) 4. In a study of vandalism in London flats it was discovered that the features of defensible space alone did not explain the different levels of vandalism in different areas. Describe two other features that would affect the level of crime on a housing estate. (4) 5. People who live in Tower Blocks often say that they do not know their neighbours and there is little sense of community in the area. How might the design of the Tower Block in the diagram affect this? (2)
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