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1. Vulnerability to Addiction 2. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause people to behave…
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  • 1. Vulnerability to Addiction
  • 2. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause people to behave in self-defeating ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low S.E at 11, higher risk dependency at 20 </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Mobile Phone Usage (violate privacy/harass). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bianchi and Phillips (2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also found excessive use linked to escapism and low self esteem </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Armstrong found Pathological Internet Usage (addiction) more common in people with low self- esteem </li></ul>
  • 5. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Attributions for Addiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributions are explanations for the cause of one’s behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smokers try to absolve their personal responsibility for engaging in this problem behaviour by blaming ‘addiction’ </li></ul><ul><li>They attribute factors to outside their control </li></ul>
  • 6. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Social Context of Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>General Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smokers befriend other smokers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-smokers befriend non smokers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition to increased levels of smoking are related to; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peers’ encouragement and approval, along with </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The message that smoking is an activity that promotes popularity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Social Context of Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Social Identity Theory help explain smoking behaviour </li></ul>
  • 8. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Social Context of Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviours are learned through observing others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modelling (of people they have most contact with) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once started smoking, if the experience is positive they keep on smoking but if negative they will stop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive can be feeling included, social solidarity, pleasant feeling of rebellion etc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Vulnerability Factors <ul><li>Social Context of Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Social Identity Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups members adopts the norms and values of the group as their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking habits will be similar </li></ul></ul>
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