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1. PSYA 4- RESEARCH METHODS AS LEVEL RECAP… 2. Why do we need to recap AS material? <ul><li>Your A2 research methods paper is out of 35 marks; there is no…
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  • 1. PSYA 4- RESEARCH METHODS AS LEVEL RECAP…
  • 2. Why do we need to recap AS material? <ul><li>Your A2 research methods paper is out of 35 marks; there is no ‘set way’ that the questions will be laid out and there is no choice. You are expected to APPLY your knowledge to an unknown scenario. </li></ul><ul><li>The A2 specification BUILDS ON your previous AS knowledge so it is essential you know BOTH the AS and the A2 material EQUALLY WELL. </li></ul>
  • 3. THE AIM <ul><li>ALL research has an AIM; it is a general statement of why the study is being carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>The statement will normally be TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF (the IV) on (the DV). Identify the AIM of the following investigation: </li></ul><ul><li>A psychologist decided to conduct a study where </li></ul><ul><li>participants were either mildly stressed or not </li></ul><ul><li>stressed while carrying out a puzzle. He measured </li></ul><ul><li>their accuracy in completing the puzzle. </li></ul>
  • 4. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>ALL research also has a HYPOTHESIS; it is a clear, testable prediction formulated at the beginning of the research process of what the researcher expects to find. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothesis operationalises (makes measurable) both the IV and the DV in this statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses can be DIRECTIONAL (or one tailed); these predict what the difference will be… </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses can be NON DIRECTIONAL (or two tailed); these predict that there will be a difference but not what the difference will be. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE! THE TERM EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS IS USED WHEN DOING AN EXPERIMENT, OTHERWISE THE TERM ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS IS USED. </li></ul>
  • 5. Are the following hypothesis directional or non directional? <ul><li>Pupils studying Psychology are much happier than those studying Biology. </li></ul><ul><li>People who eat brown bread will score more highly on an IQ test than those who eat brown bread. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be a difference between the number of times males and females fail to stop at a red light. </li></ul><ul><li>Smokers will cough more times than non smokers when asked to sit in silence. </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for designer clothing will effect participants score Allports attitude scale. </li></ul>
  • 6. Why do psychologists choose a directional or a non directional hypothesis? <ul><li>Generally, studies which are repeating research that have been carried out before (or similar research) will have some idea of what they expect to find and therefore they will choose a DIRECTIONAL hypothesis. If this is new research, or if the psychologist is unsure of what the affect will be, they will choose a NON DIRECTIONAL one. </li></ul><ul><li>REFER TO Q18 ON YOUR SPECIMEN PAPER… </li></ul>
  • 8. THE NULL HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>The null hypothesis is written alongside the alternative (or experimental if the research is an experiment) hypothesis in order to make the scientific prediction complete. </li></ul><ul><li>When the psychologist carries out his statistical analysis of the results, this analysis will prove EITHER the null OR the alternative hypothesis so the researcher must state BOTH. </li></ul><ul><li>A null hypothesis predicts that any differences between the sets of results in the experiment are due to CHANCE ALONE; as psychologists we must accept that we can never rule out the possibility that any results gained may be simply due to chance and the use of inferential statistics (e.g. Chi Squared etc) will point to the NULL if the difference is not found to be significant enough. </li></ul>
  • 9. Write a non directional alternative hypothesis and a null hypothesis for the following examples… <ul><li>Students feel more stress two days before an exam rather than on the day itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who do not form an attachment before the age of two are at risk of social delinquency. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will remember more information if presented visually rather if it presented acoustically. </li></ul>
  • 10. OVER TO YOU… <ul><li>Answer the following questions from your bank of past papers… </li></ul><ul><li>JUNE 2011 question 17 </li></ul><ul><li>JUNE 2010 question 23 </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIMEN PAPER question 20 </li></ul>
  • 11. JUNE 2011 <ul><li>Question 17 </li></ul><ul><li>AO2/AO3 = 2 marks </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to clarify some of the issues raised by previous research where some studies had shown that red facilitated tasks and other studies had shown the opposite. They believed that </li></ul><ul><li>one way to reconcile these different findings was to look at particular cognitive tasks eg ones which required attention to detail and to compare them with tasks which tap into very different skills eg creativity and thus to narrow down the benefits of providing red backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>One mark for a brief answer eg 'they wanted to investigate the effects of colour on performance.' One further mark for elaboration, in relation to colour and / or performance. </li></ul>
  • 12. JUNE 2010 <ul><li>Question 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Question Stem </li></ul><ul><li>The psychologist was also interested in the effects of a restricted diet on memory functioning and he expected memory to become impaired. His hypothesis was as follows: Participants’ scores on a memory test are lower after a restricted diet than before a restricted diet. He gave the volunteers a memory test when they first arrived in the research unit and a similar test at the end of the 4 week period. He recorded the memory scores on both tests and analysed them using the Wilcoxon test. He set his significance level at 5%. </li></ul><ul><li>His calculated value was T = 53 </li></ul><ul><li>AO2/3 1 mark </li></ul><ul><li>1 mark for correct answer – directional (one-tailed is acceptable) </li></ul>
  • 13. SPECIMEN PAPER Q20
  • 14. RESEARCH METHODS… Advantages and Weaknesses <ul><li>You need to know the advantages and weaknesses of the various research methods used in psychology. Furthermore, at A2 level you will need to relate these to specific studies so you need to know them well. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a table and make notes on the advantages and weaknesses of the following methods using Cat Book… </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS (p85) </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD EXPERIMENTS (p85) </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL EXPERIMENTS (p85) </li></ul><ul><li>CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS (p99) </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATIONAL TECHNIQUES (p91) </li></ul><ul><li>SELF REPORT TECHNIQUE- QUESTIONNAIRES (p97) </li></ul><ul><li>SELF REPORT TECHNIQUE- STRUCTURED INTERVIEW (p97) </li></ul><ul><li>SELF REPORT TECHNIQUE- UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW (p97) </li></ul><ul><li>CASE STUDIES (p101) </li></ul>
  • 16. For the following TWO studies, suggest a research method and state ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of this method relevant TO THIS STUDY… <ul><li>A group of psychology students were studying social influence. As part of their studies they decided to investigate the extent to which drivers complied to rules of the road. To do this they stood near a pedestrian crossing and noted how often drivers stopped when a pedestrian stood by the crossing waiting to cross. </li></ul><ul><li>A study was conducted to investigate the effects of anxiety on performance. Participants were given a task to complete in a set time. One set of ppts were mildly stressed during the task. This was achieved by arranging for the researcher to watch their performance closely. The other set of ppts were watched but in a friendly manner. </li></ul>
  • 17. OVER TO YOU… <ul><li>Refer to Jan 2010 paper… </li></ul><ul><li>Answer question (e). </li></ul>
  • 19. What did the examiners report state about candidates (e) answer?
  • 20. EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Experiments (lab and field) are the research method most associated with Psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>They manipulate the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE and then measure the DEPENDENT VARIABLE whilst attempting to control any EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES that may effect the outcome. The aim of this is to establish a CAUSE AND EFFECT relationship between the two. </li></ul>
  • 21. Identify the IV and the DV… <ul><li>Severe punishment causes anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a difference in the ability of grey rats and white rats in learning to run a maze. </li></ul><ul><li>Watching violent TV gives children nightmares. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence makes the heart grow fonder </li></ul><ul><li>A baby under 9 months of age will not search for a hidden object. </li></ul><ul><li>Social class affects IQ scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Men drive faster than women. </li></ul>
  • 22. Operationalising Variables <ul><li>In short, this term means making the variable you are considering MEASUREABLE. </li></ul><ul><li>How would you operationalise the variables below? </li></ul><ul><li>Severe punishment causes anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence makes the heart grow fonder. </li></ul><ul><li>Men drive faster than women. </li></ul>
  • 23. OVER TO YOU… Refer to Jan 2011 paper- answer Q22. NOTE! There are 5 marks up for this question so ensure you answer it FULLY.
  • 25. How did candidates do on this question? The examiner said..
  • 26. CONTROLLING EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES <ul><li>These are any variables that might influence the DEPENDENT VARIABLE apart from the IV. If they are not controlled, they become CONFOUNDING VARIABLES and they prevent a cause and effect relationship being established between the IV and DV. </li></ul>
  • 27. OVER TO YOU… Refer to Jan 2010 paper- answer (d). NOTE! There are 4 marks up for this question so ensure you answer it FULLY.
  • 29. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN <ul><li>You need to know three experimental designs: </li></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT GROUPS DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>MATCHED PARTICIPANTS DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>You also need to know the advantages and disadvantages of each of these designs… </li></ul>
  • 30. <ul><li>Below are some advantages and disadvantages of the various experimental designs (independent groups/ repeated measures/ matched participants)… Decide which are relevant to which design… </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids order effects </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Needs fewer participants </li></ul><ul><li>Needs more participants </li></ul>
  • 31. OVER TO YOU… <ul><li>Refer to the Specimen paper… answer question 14. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to Jan 2011- answer Q24. </li></ul>
  • 33. DESIGN OF NATURALISTIC OBSERVATIONS (including the development and use of behavioural categories) <ul><li>Naturalistic observations mean you are observing people in there normal environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The term BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES basically refers breaking down behaviours into specific components (for example if observing ‘aggression’ you need to break down ‘aggression’ into specific behaviours to observe for). </li></ul>
  • 34. Designing naturalistic observations… follow these steps. Not only the issues but also how to overcome them! CONSIDER ETHICS You can overcome bias with ‘inter observer reliability’ by having more than one observer using the same coding system. CONSIDER THE RELIABILITY ISSUE You can create a ‘behavioural checklist’ with a code for each behaviour, or create a tally chart. DECIDE HOW TO RECORD YOUR DATA- A CODING SYSTEM You can’t observe everything! Choose from event, time or point sampling. DECIDE ON YOUR SAMPLING PROCEDURE You must be objective, cover all possible component behaviours and be mutually exclusive DECIDE YOUR BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES ‘ to investigate….’ IDENTIFY YOUR AIM
  • 35. OVER TO YOU… <ul><li>Refer to the Jan 2011 paper.. Q26. This is a HUGE question so take your time to answer it fully using the steps given! </li></ul>
  • 36. Before you start, what did the examiner say?
  • 38. DESIGN OF QUESTIONNAIRES <ul><ul><li>Questionnaires are a form of SURVEY; they can be administered by post or face to face. In the exam you could be given an aim and asked to design the questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE! At A2 level you will be expected to fully engage any scenario given, so do so whilst following these steps… </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. To discover any problem questions Not only the issues but also how to overcome them! CARRY OUT A PILOT STUDY IDENTIFY AND TACKLE ANY ETHICAL ISSUES i.e. the sequence of questions e.g. easier first and the inclusion of ‘ filler questions ’ to put respondents at ease. DECIDE ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE WHOLE QUESTIONNAIRE They should be clear to understand , should avoid social desirability bias and they should be easy to analyse WRITE GOOD QUESTIONS Closed questions will give you quantitative data and open questions qualitative data. DECIDE ON THE TYPE OF QUESTIONS TO USE The sampling frame refers to pool of people you aim to study and the technique could be random etc. SELECT YOUR SAMPLING FRAME/ SAMPLING TECHNIQUE ‘ to investigate….’ IDENTIFY YOUR AIM
  • 40. DESIGN OF INTERVIEWS <ul><li>Interviews can be STRUCTURED or UNSTRUCTURED depending on the behaviour being investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>You may need to decide which would be most appropriate, nevertheless the design structure is as follows… </li></ul>
  • 41. Not only the issues but also how to overcome them! IDENTIFY AND TACKLE ANY ETHICAL ISSUES To discover any problem questions CARRY OUT A PILOT STUDY They should be clear to understand , should avoid social desirability bias and they should be easy to analyse WRITE GOOD QUESTIONS Structured will require a set question schedule with open and closed questions; unstructured will involve a ‘conversation’ with a loose question schedule and largely open questions. DECIDE WHETHER YOU SHOULD USE STRUCTURED OR UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW The sampling frame refers to pool of people you aim to study and the technique could be random etc SELECT YOUR SAMPLING FRAME/ SAMPLING TECHNIQUE ‘ to investigate….’ IDENTIFY YOUR AIM
  • 42. <ul><li>A psychologist aims to investigate the affect of black role models on people from different ethnic minorities. </li></ul><ul><li>A psychologist aims to investigate the impact of domestic violence on subsequent mental health illnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR THE ABOVE TWO INVESTIGATIONS, DECIDE ON WHICH METHOD YOU WOULD USE AND DESIGN THE INVESTIGATION USING THE STEPS YOU HAVE LEARNT. </li></ul>QUESTIONNAIRE OR INTERVIEW?
  • 43. PILOT STUDIES <ul><li>In any investigation, it is important to carry out a PILOT STUDY in order to uncover any potential problems before investing the time/ money in the full study. At A2 level you should know WHAT TYPE of problems may occur for each of the research methods. </li></ul><ul><li>What problems might you discover in… </li></ul><ul><li>An experiment (lab AND field) </li></ul><ul><li>A naturalistic observation </li></ul><ul><li>A questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>An interview </li></ul>
  • 44. SAMPLING <ul><li>The specification states that you need to know RANDOM, OPPORTUNITY and VOLUNTEER sampling… you can be asked a direct question on any of these. </li></ul><ul><li>IN PAIRS, DISCUSS WHAT EACH OF THESE MEAN AND HOW YOU WOULD DO IT. ENSURE YOU KNOW AT LEAST ONE STRENGTH AND ONE WEAKNESS OF EACH! </li></ul>
  • 45. OVER TO YOU… <ul><li>Refer to the Jan 2011 paper.. Q20 AND Q21. Ensure you take note of the fact that each of these is worth 3 marks so your answer should not be too brief… </li></ul>
  • 48. DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS AND INVESTIGATOR EFFECTS <ul><li>What do these two terms mean? </li></ul><ul><li>At A2 level you will need to identify specific demand characteristics or investigator effects that could be shown in a given scenario… </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to JUNE 2011 Q22 to see an example of this. </li></ul>
  • 49. ETHICS <ul><li>The BPS (British Psychological Society) are a professional organisation which decide whether a piece of research is ethically ok; the main concerns they have are… </li></ul><ul><li>DECEPTION </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF INFORMED CONSENT </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT TO WITHDRAW </li></ul><ul><li>CONFIDENTIALITY </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECTION FROM HARM </li></ul><ul><li>Create a table; in the left column briefly describe what these issues are and in the right column describe how you can attempt to overcome the issue. </li></ul>
  • 50. OVER TO YOU… <ul><li>Refer to the Jan 2011 paper.. Q25. As you will see the question will always refer to a scenario so you have to select a relevant ethical concern…. </li></ul>
  • 52. RELIABILITY <ul><li>Reliability means CONSISTENCY… if you repeat a study over and over again will the findings be the same (i.e. consistent). If so, they can be seen as RELIABLE. This may also be described as EXTERNAL RELIABILITY. </li></ul><ul><li>There is also the issue of INTERNAL RELIABILITY… this refers to whether a study has a standardised (i.e. consistent) procedure that other researchers can clearly fo
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