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1. Complete the following table: What is this? Cognitive approach: Social Approach: Biopsychology: Individual differences: Loftus & Palmer Reicher & Haslam…
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  • 1. Complete the following table: What is this? Cognitive approach: Social Approach: Biopsychology: Individual differences: Loftus & Palmer Reicher & Haslam Maguire Griffiths Aims & research question Hypotheses (null and alternative) Research method used – snapshot or longitudinal? Measurement of variables – qualitative or quantitative? Levels of measurement used Descriptive statistics that could be used Inferential test to be used
  • 2. G544 – The design of a practical project In order to test the effectiveness of the cognitive interview a research has staged a mock fight in front of a group consisting of 17 sixth form students. By videotaping the mock fight, the researcher knows that there are 29 important details that the witnesses should be able to recall. The research splits the sixth formers into two unequal groups by a process of random allocation. Group A are the control group who are interviewed individually using a structured interview. Group B are the experimental group who are interviewed individually using the cognitive interview. The data is recorded in the table below. Participant number Group Recall score out of 29 1. A 6 2. B 15 3. A 4 4. B 19 5. A 7 6. B 14 7. A 3 8. B 19 9. A 12 10. B 21 11. A 10 12. B 24 13. A 9 14. B 28 15. A 13 16. B 29 17. A 14 1. Explain one problem with the way in which the raw data is presented in the table above. 2. Use descriptive statistics to analyse differences in memory scores between the two groups. i. What descriptive statistics will you use and why? ii. Draw up a table comparing measures of central tendency and dispersion iii. Draw and label an appropriate chart. iv. Describe the conclusions that the researcher can make from these descriptive statistics. 3. You must now conduct further statistical analysis of this data: i. Why will you do an inferential test in this investigation ii. Explain why you would use the Mann Whitney test and not another test. iii. Explain why you will apply a significance level of p<0.05. iv. Why would you avoid applying p<0.001 and also p<0.1? v. Work out the observed value of U vi. Find the critical value of U that is appropriate to this experiment. vii. State the conclusion that the researcher can make regarding the null hypothesis. 4. Write a paragraph of no more than 150 words in which you outline the conclusions that can be reached from this analysis of the researcher’s findings. You must mention raw data, descriptive statistics, inferential analysis and level of significance. Key terms to use: Type I error Bar chart Median Interval data Type II error Mean Range Test of difference Independent data Mode Standard deviation N1 and N2 Inferential statistics
  • 3. Research ideas: Human memory ( for further inspiration go to http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/labs/yonelinas/) Read the passage below. Last year I was reading a number of news articles about people and their memories. There was the world wide hunt for the identity of a man who had lost his memory; remembering nothing, not his name, address, family or friends, what his job was, or how he came to be wandering around in a city. A few days later there was a report on a woman who could not forget anything, given a date in the last 20 years she could recall all the details of where she was, what she was wearing, who she met, what she ate and how she felt. Added to this every year there is the world memory championships, where people compete to see who can recall the longest sequence of playing cards or random words, using a variety of strategies to enhance their memory. What research questions are you now stimulated to ask? Are there any questions connected with forensic psychology? Do men forget more than women? Are the stereotypes; of men remembering facts, such as football scores, better than women true? Do women remember emotional events better than men? Is it easier to remember items that are organised or grouped together? Does visualising items from a shopping list help in recalling them later? Do some people have a better memory for material presented as pictures rather than words? Would it be better to learn lines for a part in a play by repeating them or writing them out? You are required to design a practical project to investigate one of the above research questions. It must be an independent measures design experiment and you must plan to collect at least ordinal data. It should be a project that you could carry out. 1. Research question selected: 2. State operationalised hypotheses for your investigation 3. Describe the procedure for your investigation, making clear how you would measure the dependent variable and giving examples of materials you would use?
  • 4. 4. What kind of data will you collect? 5. What descriptive statistics will you use? 6. If, having carried out your investigation which inferential statistical test would you use? 7. What would p < 0.05 mean? 8. Describe one weakness of the independent groups design in relation to your investigation. 9. Consider one way in which this weakness could be dealt with 10. Discuss the ecological validity of your measurement of the dependent variable. 11. Outline one way in which you show your awareness for ethical issues in the conduct of your study.
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