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1. OCR A2 Psychology<br />G543: Forensic Psychology<br />After a Guilty Verdict:<br />Treatment Programmes<br /> 2. Session Outline<br…
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  • 1. OCR A2 Psychology<br />G543: Forensic Psychology<br />After a Guilty Verdict:<br />Treatment Programmes<br />
  • 2. Session Outline<br />Aim:<br />To discuss the use of offender treatment<br />programmes and their effectiveness<br />Learning Objectives:<br />By the end of these sessions you will be able to:<br />Describe and evaluate Cann’s (2006) study<br />Describe and evaluate Ireland’s (2004) study<br />Describeand evaluate Wheatley’s (2005) study<br />Discuss the effectiveness of offender treatments<br />
  • 3. Treatment Programmes<br />3 topics....<br /> Cognitive Skills Programmes<br /> Anger Management<br /> Ear Acupuncture with Drug Rehabilitation<br />
  • 4. Cognitive Skills Programmes<br />Your task will be to read the article by Cann (2006) into the use of cognitive skills programmes, and to produce a summary of the study and evaluation points<br />
  • 5. After a Guilty Verdict - Treatment Programmes<br />Anger Management<br />
  • 6. Ireland (2004)<br />Aim<br />To assess whether anger-management programmes work within a group of young male offenders<br />Procedure<br />Quasi experiment - Two groups<br />Control Group<br />(37 participants)<br />No intervention or treatment programme<br />Experimental Group <br />(50 participants)<br />Received CALM anger management programme<br />
  • 7. Ireland (2004)<br />Procedure<br />Each participant was measured on the following...<br />1. Their responses to a cognitive behavioural interview<br />2. Wing Behavioural Checklist (WBC) - Completed by prison officers rating 29 angry behaviours<br />3. Anger Management Assessment (AMA) - A self-report questionnaire on anger management with 53 items completed by the prisoners themselves<br />Experimental group measured before/after CALM<br />
  • 8. Ireland (2004)<br />Results<br /> Prisoners who had completed CALM rated themselves lower on the AMA questionnaire and were rated lower on the WBC by the prison officers.<br /> There was no significant reduction in either of these measures in the control group.<br /> 92% of the treatment group showed improvements on at least one measure of aggression, 48% showed improvement on both measures.<br /> 8% showed no improvement or deterioration on both measures.<br />
  • 9. Ireland (2004)<br />Conclusion<br /> The CALM programme seemed effective and prisoners appeared to be helped by the programme. <br /> However, there is no re-offending data so it is unclear whether these programmes have a long-term effect. <br />Also, the fact that 8% of prisoners appeared to get worse requires investigation.<br />
  • 10. Ireland (2004) - Evaluation<br />Work in pairs to answer the evaluation questions for Ireland’s (2004) study<br />
  • 11. Ireland (2004)- Evaluation<br />Method – Quasi Experiment<br /> This allows a cause and effect relationship to be inferred as we can assess the offenders’ aggressive behaviours before and after the intervention<br /> However, there is a lack of control over other extraneous variables which may have affected inmates’ anger such as relationships with other inmates, news from family, etc.<br /> Some ecological validity as carried out in the institutional setting, however it is unclear whether these results apply when prisoners are released<br />
  • 12. Ireland (2004) - Evaluation<br />Method – (cont’d...)<br /> It wasn’t possibly to randomly assign participants to each group, so they couldn’t be matched on variables such as age or offence type<br /> There are inherent difficulties in using self-reports in a forensic setting where there may be clear incentives for individuals to appear successful following treatment e.g., for parole purposes<br />
  • 13. Ireland (2004) - Evaluation<br />Sample<br /> The sample comprised all male young offenders (mean age of 18-19 years) in a young offenders’ institution serving sentences of less than 3 months on average.<br /> Therefore, the results cannot be generalised to other settings and groups such as female offenders, released offenders or those in a prison.<br />
  • 14. Ireland (2004) - Evaluation<br />Reductionism vs. holism<br /> This study is reductionist as only looks at the effect that the CALM intervention has on aggressive behaviour. Many other factors can potentially influence aggressive behaviour.<br />Situational vs. individual explanations<br /> This study suggests that completing the CALM programme will reduce aggressive behaviour. Is it the prison situation that causes this effect due to prisoners wanting early release? Or has the individual’s behaviour changed for good? Unsure, as there is no re-offending data.<br />
  • 15. After a Guilty Verdict - Treatment Programmes<br />Ear<br />Acupuncture<br />
  • 16. Wheatley (2005)<br />Aim<br />To evaluate the effectiveness of ear acupuncture for treatment of substance misuse. <br />Procedure<br />Experiment - Independent Measures<br />Experimental Group <br />Received acupuncture and standard care (FOCUS)<br />Control Group<br />Received standard care (FOCUS) but no acupuncture<br />
  • 17. Wheatley (2005)<br />Method – Experiment (Independent Measures)<br /> This allows a cause and effect relationship to be inferred as we can assess the offenders’ drug-taking behaviours before and after the acupuncture treatment<br /> Independent measures design means that participant variables could potentially confoundthe results – e.g. motivation levels, etc.<br /> Using a control group means not only can we see the effects of treatment in the experimental group, but we can also compare the results to those not receiving treatment<br />
  • 18. Wheatley (2005)<br />Sample<br />Large sample used and participants were randomly assigned to the treatment or control groups. This allows for greater generalisability of findings.<br />Qualitative/Quantitative Data<br />Qualitative data allows prisoners to report how the treatment makes them feel, however as this is self-report data there is the potential for offenders to be dishonest.<br /> Quantitative data gives a more objective description of the treatments’ success and cannot be manipulated by offenders.<br />
  • 19. Wheatley (2005)<br />Reductionism/Holism<br />This study takes a reductionist approach as it is only studying the effect that ear acupuncture has on treating drug addiction<br /> However, it is stated that ear acupuncture is only a small part of a more holistic approach to treating drug addiction<br /> Therefore, how useful is it to isolate only one part of this treatment and using it as an independent variable?<br /> Whilst the scientific method is usually preferred, it is worth considering whether developing other methods of assessing holistic alternative treatments is preferable<br />
  • 20. Wheatley (2005) - Evaluation<br />Work in pairs to answer the evaluation questions for Wheatley’s (2005) study<br />
  • 21. Exam Questions<br />(a) Describe a treatment program used in prisons.[10 marks]<br />(b) Evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment programme. [15 marks]<br />(a) Describe and evaluate one treatment or therapy used to treat criminal behaviour. [10 marks]<br />(b)Discuss the problems of conducting research into treatments for criminal behaviour. [15 marks] <br />
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