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1. 5462318-264340-662437-264340Case Studies<br />A case study is an in-depth study of one individual or small group to give detailed, rich information.<br…
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  • 1. 5462318-264340-662437-264340Case Studies<br />A case study is an in-depth study of one individual or small group to give detailed, rich information.<br />Various research methods are used in case studies, such as interviews, questionnaires, or observations. Most of the information collected is qualitative, but can sometimes be quantitative. Often a case study can be the only way to study a certain issue.<br />Examples of things that could be studied using case studies<br />Qualitative data is<br />Quantitative data is<br />Read the two case studies on the following page. Think about some of the following:<br /><ul><li>Quality of the data gathered
  • 2. Ecological validity
  • 3. Ethics
  • 4. How scientific were they?
  • 5. How generalisable are they?
  • 6. Are they replicable?
  • 7. How important are these case studies for psychology?
  • 8. How practical are case studies?
  • 9. Was objectivity be maintained?</li></ul>Examples of 2 Case Studies<br />3810000115570<br />Henry Gustav Molaison (February 26, 1926 – December 2, 2008), better known as HM was a memory-impaired patient who was widely studied from the late 1950s until his death. His case played a very important role in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory. <br />After undergoing brain surgery for epilepsy at the age of 27, he suffered from severe anterograde amnesia. He was able to remember things that happened to him before the operation, but was unable to create new memories. However, his short term memory was still intact (he could hold a phone number in his head for example) and he was able to learn new skills, even if he had no memory of doing it (learning to draw using a mirror). <br />HM was important not only for the knowledge he provided about memory impairment and amnesia, but also because his exact brain surgery allowed a good understanding of how particular areas of the brain may be linked to specific processes in memory formation. In this way, he provided vital information about the brain and helped form theories of normal memory function. <br />HM was never able to live independently and spent his life being cared for my family, or in a care home. He was the focus of intense scientific interest throughout his life.<br />Genie: When Genie was between 14 and 20 months of age a doctor told her family that she seemed to be developmentally delayed and possibly mildly retarded. Her father decided that she was profoundly retarded, and subjected her to severe confinement and ritual ill-treatment in an attempt to " protect" her. Genie spent the next 12 years of her life locked in her bedroom. During the day, she was tied to a child's potty chair in diapers; at night, she was bound in a sleeping bag and placed in an enclosed crib with a cover made of metal screening. Genie's father beat her if she vocalized, and he barked and growled at her like a dog in order to keep her quiet. <br />38100156845<br />By the age of 13, Genie was almost entirely mute, had a vocabulary of about 20 words and a few short phrases (nearly all negative), such as " stop it" and " no more" . Genie was discovered at the age of 13 when her mother left her husband and took Genie with her. <br />Within a few months of therapy, she had advanced to one-word answers and had learned to dress herself. After considerable therapy from doctors, Genie later learned to vocalize and express herself through sign language. However, she never reached any sort of normal cognitive or emotional development. <br />Genie’s case is important to psychology as it shed light upon issues such as the critical period for language acquisition, developmental problems, and the psychological and physical effects of extreme privation and neglect. <br />After the study, arrangements for Genie’s care were cut short because of a loss of funding due to lack of interest from the scientific community. Genie now lives in a residential home.<br />Strengths of using case studies are:Weaknesses of using case studies are:<br />Correlations<br />What is a correlation?<br /><ul><li>A correlation is a relationship between two variables. A correlational design is a way to test the relationship between two variables. A participant provides data for both variables.
  • 10. A correlational design allows us to test whether 2 or more phenomena are related, and if so how strongly
  • 11. In a correlational design, there are no independent or dependant variables, but co-variables.</li></ul>When do we use a correlational design?<br /><ul><li>To test a hypothesis about a relationship between two variables, for example:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 12. When looking for a relationship that would be unethical to manipulate for an experiment, for example: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________</li></ul>How to use correlations<br /><ul><li>Decide what variables you will be measuring, and find a way of measuring them.
  • 13. Decide who your participants are and then measure them.
  • 14. Each participant gets measured on each variable.
  • 15. Plot the values on the scatter graph to see if there is a relationship.
  • 16. If there is a relationship, what type is it?</li></ul>363855176530<br />Correlation Coefficients<br />The correlation coefficient is measured from _____ to _______<br />A correlation can be positive, negative or no correlation. The ____________ the number, the stronger the correlation<br />5561965123190<br />Positive Correlation<br />A positive correlation means that as one variable increases, the other also increases<br />Between 0 to +1<br /><ul><li>For example: the taller a person is the heavier they are likely to be
  • 17. Your own example:</li></ul>___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />565023052070Negative Correlation<br />A negative correlation means that as one variable increases, the other decreases<br />Between 0 and -1 <br /><ul><li>For example: the more alcohol you drink, the less you are able to remember
  • 18. Your own example:</li></ul>___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />571881079375<br />No Correlation<br />A correlation of zero (or close to zero) means that there is no relationship between the two variables. Correlation coefficient of close to 0 <br /><ul><li>For example: shoe size and IQ
  • 19. Your own example:</li></ul>___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Activity:<br />What correlation would you expect to find in the following situations?<br />A: Hand-span and height: ___________________________________________________________<br />B: Smoking and life expectancy: ______________________________________________________<br />C: Love of psychology and love of chocolate: ___________________________________________<br />D: No. of pets owned and cleanliness of home: _________________________________________<br />E: Calories eaten and weight gained: __________________________________________________<br />F: No. of books read and strength of glasses prescription: ________________________________<br />G: No. of Facebook friends and avg. units of alcohol drunk: _______________________________<br />H: No. of A levels taken and levels of stress: ____________________________________________<br />I: Hours playing computer games and violent behaviour in children: ________________________<br />J: Size of DVD collection and money in bank account: ____________________________________<br />K: Love for mother and love for father: ________________________________________________<br />Correlation and Causation<br />You have performed a statistical test, and found that two variables are correlated (there is a relationship). What does this tell us about cause?<br />When looking at correlation, it is important to remember that:<br />Example<br />Children who play violent computer games are more likely to be violent. <br />46596301092201: Violent computer games cause children to be violent<br />or<br />2:__________________________________________________<br />___________________________________________________<br />or<br />3: __________________________________________________<br />____________________________________________________<br />Strengths<br /><ul><li>Precise information on the degree of relationship between variables is available in the form of the correlation coefficient. It can readily quantify observable data
  • 20. No manipulation of behaviour is required
  • 21. Strong significant correlations can suggest ideas for experimental studies to determine cause an defect relationships</li></ul>Weaknesses<br /><ul><li>No cause and effect relationships can be inferred. E.g. ne variable can no t be said to cause an increase or decrease in the other variable. The relationship could be explained by a third variable
  • 22. 353060723900Correlations should be plotted out on scatter graphs to properly illustrate the relationships between two variables. A zero correlation may not form a random pattern (see below)
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