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1. G542Your guide to Section C in the exam.. 2. Approaches &PerspectivesThis section has questions which focus on the approaches and perspectives.This section carries…
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  • 1. G542Your guide to Section C in the exam..
  • 2. Approaches &PerspectivesThis section has questions which focus on the approaches and perspectives.This section carries 24 marks so you should aim to spend about 24 minutes onit:You will be required to answer one question from a choice of two. Approaches: cognitive, developmental, social, individual differences and physiological Perspectives: behaviourist and psychodynamic You will be expected to know the assumptions of these approaches/ perspectives and strengths and weaknesses of them (which you must back up with examples from the core studies)What’s come up so far? Cog Dev Soc Phys ID Behav PsychoJan2009June2009Jan2010June2010Jan2011June2011Jan2012
  • 3. June2012??? Section C: Top tipsRead the blurb…You will be required to answer one question from a choice of two. Do notattempt to answer both of them!REMEMBER: Context matters!!The key to achieving a high mark in section C is to contextualize your answerusing evidence from the core studies that support the approach/perspective. ‘Have you got it?’Part (a) of this question will ask you for one assumption of whicheverapproach/ perspective you have chosen – it is only worth 2 marks so doesn’tneed a huge amount of detail – but must link the approach to behaviour.Part (b) of this question will ask you how the approach you have chosen couldexplain something (which will relate to one of the core studies) i.e. how canthe physiological approach be used to explain changes in the structure of thebrain? It is worth 4 marks.This is a difficult question and to ensure that you pick up all of the marks youneed to link the assumption with the implication it has for behaviour and youmust use an example from a core study.Part (c) of this question is a 6 mark question which will ask you for a similarityand a difference between two of the studies within the approach. You willobtain 3 marks for each of these and to obtain top marks you need to ensurethat you elaborate in your answer giving examples from two relevant studies.
  • 4. REMEMBER – for each point you MUST give 2 examples. Explain the similarity then give an example from the two 2 studies you are comparing and the same for the difference. Part (d) of this question will be a 12 mark question which asks you to discuss strengths and weaknesses of the approaches/perspective using examples from the core studies. Remember that you should be using PEE here and you need to have at least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses to get into the top mark band . Examples of strengths and weaknesses include ethics, ecological validity, longitudinal vs snapshot design, the type of data collected, reliability and validity. REMEMBER to focus on the approach and NOT ona study or a method. Read your answer and check you are focusing on the approach.Idea A shortcut to the amount you need to learn for this question is to always use reductionism as one weakness and always use usefulnessas one strength. You will still need to learn another strength and weakness. REMEMBER as always you must give detailed evidence to support every point. Let’s have a look at a Section C question from June 2011… Answer onequestion from Section C. Choose either Q17 or Q18. EITHER Q17 (a) Outline one assumption of the developmental approach.(2) (b) With reference to Samuel and Bryant’s study, describe how the developmental approach could explain why one child can conserve whilst another cannot.(4) (c) Describe one similarity and one difference between any core studies that take thedevelopmental approach.(6) (d) Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the developmental approach using examples from any core studies that take this approach.(12)
  • 5. ORQ18 (a) Outline one assumption of the psychodynamic perspective.(2) (b) Describe how the psychodynamic perspective could explain multiple personality disorder.(4) (c) Describe one similarity and one difference between any core studies that can be viewed from the psychodynamic perspective.(6) (d) Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the psychodynamic perspective using examples from any core studies that can be viewed from this perspective.(12)A candidates answer…DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH MARK?17(a) This approach assumes that development is an on-going processand that children’sdevelopment can be affected by inherited factors andlifetime experiences,supporting the nature/nurture debate.17(b) Samuel and Bryant’s study supports the nature side of the debateand states thatchildren’s ability to conserve improves with age i.e. as theyget older children canconserve better. This is being based on the ideas bythe developmental approachand cognitive ideas that show childrendevelop and go through stages and it is asthey develop through thesestages they can conserve, so a child still low down in thestages may notbe able to conserve even if a child of the same age can, as it is notbasedon age and children move through the stages at different ages anddevelopdifferently.17(c) One similarity between the study by Samuel and Bryant and thestudy by Bandura isthat they are both laboratory experiments which tookplace in artificial settings,creating low ecological validity. As they both tookplace in artificial settings they mayalso not be very valid results as thechildren involved may have responded todemand characteristics. Adifference between the study by Samuel and Bryant andFreud’s study onLittle Hans is the sample size and also experiment type. Forexample,Freud’s study was a longitudinal case study with a sample consistingonlyof Little Hans, whereas Samuel and Bryant carried out a snapshot,laboratoryexperiment with a large sample of 252 children.17(d) One strength of the developmental approach is that case studiesprovide lots of validdata. For example, Freud’s study took thedevelopmental approach and was alongitudinal case study of Little Hans.This allowed for lots of rich, qualitative data tobe collected during the studyfrom interviews and observations which could thenprovide valid data toexemplify Freud’s theories about psychosexual stages ofdevelopment andin particular the stage Little Hans was in, the phallic stage.Anotherstrength of this approach is that the data and results collected canbe very useful andhave important applications to everyday life after theresearch has been carried out.For example, in the study by Samuel andBryant on conservation, the findingsshowed the effect of leading questions
  • 6. on children and therefore helped thequestioning technique being used inchildren’s education. Not only with children butalso to aid questioning incourt rooms. This is very important and therefore theresearch by Samueland Bryant was very useful. However there are weaknesses tothedevelopmental approach. For example, case studies can also provideinvaliddata. Such as in the study by Freud. Although lots of data wascollected because itwas a longitudinal case study, the data about LittleHans is likely to have becomesubjective over time especially as it was hisfather interviewing him. Also Freud’scase study is reductionist as Freudbelieves and interpreted the data to show only hisideas were beingsupported. Another and final weakness of the developmentalapproach isthe fact that studies using this approach often raise ethical issues.Forexample the study by Bandura was very unethical. It does not statewhether informedconsent was given and if the parents were told about thestudy their children wereinvolved in. There was no right to withdraw and noprotection from harm as childrenwere deliberately antagonised to beaggressive, they were exposed to aggressivetoys and aggressivebehaviour from adults whom they did not know. Therefore thisstudy, usingthe developmental approach, was very unethical.Mark SchemeGeneric guidelines:Answers throughout must be clearly linked and referenced to the selected approach17 (a)Outline one assumption of the developmental approach.Likely answer:The assumption must be:- Linked to the developmental approach- Linked to behaviourIt assumes there are clearly identifiable systematic changes that occur in an individual’sbehaviour from conception to death.Other appropriate answer. 0 marks – No or irrelevant answer eg a mere description of the approach. 1 mark – Assumption is identified. Description is basic and lacks detail. Some understanding may be evident. Expression is generally poor. 2 marks – Description of assumption is accurate. Detail is appropriate and understanding is very good. Fine details may be added. Expression and use of psychological terminology is good.17 (b) With reference to Samuel and Bryant’s study, describe how the developmentalapproach could explain why one child can conserve whilst another cannot.
  • 7. Likely answer may cover the following content:As children grow up and mature mentally, their cognitive abilities develop so they can copewith and understand increasingly complex phenomena. This was shown through Samueland Bryant’s conservation experiment where the mean number of errors made by children inall three conditions (standard, one judgement, fixed array) decreased with age, showing theirability to conserve got increasingly better as they got older. The study also showed thatconservational abilities develop gradually as the child’s cognitive abilities develop becausechildren were able to conserve number before they were able to conserve mass or volume.Other appropriate answer. 0 marks – No or irrelevant answer. 1-2 marks – Description is generally accurate, but is basic and lacks detail. Some understanding and or elaboration may be evident. Expression generally poor. NB: A maximum of 1 mark can be gained for a generic explanation not linked Samuel and Bryant’s study into conservation. 3-4 marks – Description is accurate. Detail is appropriate and understanding is good. Elaboration (eg specific detail or example) is evident. Expression and use of psychological terminology is good.17 (c) Describe one similarity and one difference between any core studies that takethe developmental approach.This question requires candidates to refer to the 3 developmental approach core studies ieFreud, Samuel and Bryant, BanduraAnswers are likely to refer to: Sample, methodology, ethics.Possible answers: Similarity:Both Bandura and Samuel and Bryant used a laboratory experiment which allowed them ahigh level of control. Bandura controlled their experiment by having the same number ofboys and girls see either an aggressive or a non-aggressive model, by using the same 3rooms, and by displaying the toys in exactly the same way for every child. Every child alsowitnessed the same stylised acts of either aggressive or non-aggressive behaviour acted outby the models. Samuel and Bryant controlled their experiment by having an equal number of21 children of equal mean age in each subgroup – standard, one question, fixed array. Inaddition every child had 4 attempts with each type of material – counters, playdough, liquid,and the order in which the children undertook the tasks was systematically varied to preventorder effects.Other appropriate answer. 0 marks – No or irrelevant answer. 1 mark – Similarity is identified, with little or no elaboration. 2 marks – Description of similarity is basic and lacks detail. Some understanding may be evident. Expression is generally poor. 3 marks – Description of similarity is accurate and has elaboration. Understanding is good.Difference:A difference between two developmental studies is that Bandura’s and Samuel and Bryant’ssamples were drawn from different places. Bandura’s sample was drawn from StanfordUniversity Nursery School in California, America whereas Samuel and Bryant’s participantscame from various schools and playgroups in Crediton, Devon, England.
  • 8. Other appropriate answer. 0 marks – No or irrelevant answer. 1 mark – Difference is identified, with little or no elaboration, topic of study is merely reiterated. 2 marks – Description of difference is basic and lacks detail. Some understanding may be evident. Expression is generally poor. 3 marks – Description of difference is accurate and has elaboration. Understanding is good.Guidance for allocating marks:1 mark – An appropriate similarity/difference between two appropriate studies is merelyidentified.2 marks – An appropriate similarity/difference is identified and supported by relevantevidence from one appropriate study OR an appropriatesimilarity/difference is merelydescribed without actual identification of the similarity/difference.3 marks – An appropriate similarity/difference is identified and supported by relevantevidence from two appropriate studies.17 (d) Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the developmental approach usingexamples from any core studies that take this approach.This question again requires candidates to refer to the 3 developmental approach corestudies.The candidate must make it clear why their suggestion is a strength/weakness.The supporting evidence must actually support the identified strength/weakness ie beappropriately contextualised.Study-specific/methodology-specific answers are NOT creditworthy.Strengths may include:  It offers and explanation on why individuals of differing ages demonstrate different intellectual abilities, social skills and emotional responses….  It adds to the continuing nature versus nurture debate….Weaknesses may include:  It is often claimed to be reductionist….  Many proposals in relation to age-related development have been shown to be too rigid….  Relies heavily on the use of children which raise ethical issues.Possible answer:One strength of the developmental approach is that it offers an explanation as to whyindividuals of differing ages demonstrate different intellectual abilities, social skills andemotional responses. [S] For example Samuel and Bryant’s showed how as children getolder their ability to conserve increases and that conservational abilities develop graduallywith the ability to conserve number developing before that of mass or volume.[E] Likewise,Freud showed how young boys pass, subconsciously, through various psychosexual stagesof development, one being the phallic stage during which they experience the OedipusComplex where a boy has sexual desires for his mother and recognises a competition withhis father. He fears his father will punish him by castrating him. This subconscious complexcan become evident through the development of a phobia – here being bitten by a horsewhich is seen to represent his fear of his father castrating him. As they overcome the
  • 9. Oedipus Complex, they identify with their father who is then no longer deemed a threat andfrequently the phobia is overcome. [E]Another strength of the developmental approach is that it adds to the continuing natureversus nurture debate. [S]The study by Bandura shows the influence of nurture on thedevelopment of aggressive behaviour. Those children exposed to the aggressive modelreproduced more acts of aggression than those children exposed to a non-aggressive modelor no model at all, suggesting children can learn (nurture) toimitate behaviour. However,although the children’s natural aggressive tendencies were controlled for as they were pre-matched for aggression and equally distributed between the groups, one cannot be certainchildren in the aggressive group were not naturally more pre-disposed to aggression. [E]Likewise, although Samuel and Bryant’s study showed conservational skills develop withage, suggesting this is due to a child’s natural (biologically determined) developing cognitiveabilities, one cannot be certain that the environment (nurture) they were brought up in athome and/or school did not significantly influence these abilities. [E]A weakness of the developmental approach is that it is often claimed to be reductionist as itattempts to provide a complete explanation for a complex behaviour by focusing on onesingle factor.[W] Bandura in his Bashing Bobo experiment tried to show that children canlearn aggressive behaviour simply by watching and then imitating aggressive behaviourdisplayed by a significant model. However other factors are also likely to influence whetheror not a child will become aggressive eg biological influences such as testosterone levelswhich are known to affect aggression levels. [E] Likewise, Freud tried to claim that LittleHans’ fear of horses was a subconscious fear of his father as he was experiencing theOedipus Complex. This is reducing the development of complex phenomena of phobiasdown to one basic factor whereas other influences such as the biological need to surviveand the influence of past experiences eg seeing someone being bitten by a horse, are alsolikely to influence whether or not an individual develops such a phobia. [E]Another weakness of this approach is that because research frequently involves the study ofchildren, ethical guidelines are often breached. [W] For example, although Bandura neededto use children to show how easily they can learn to imitate behaviour, many of themsuffered distress during the experiment: one girl was distressed by the behaviour of theaggressive female model and said, “Who is that lady? That’s not the way for a lady tobehave.” [E] The children were also distressed when they were taken into the second room,allowed to play with attractive toys and then had them taken off them. [E] It is unethical tocause participants distress and researchers should be aware that children becomedistressed more easily than adults. [C]Other appropriate answer. 0 marks – No or irrelevant answer. 1-3 marks – There may be some strengths or weaknesses which are appropriate or peripheral to the question, or there may be an imbalance between the two. Discussion is poor with limited or no understanding. Expression is poor. Analysis is sparse and argument may be just discernible. Sparse or no use of supporting examples. 4-6 marks – There may be some strengths and weaknesses which are appropriate to the question, or there may be an imbalance between the two. Discussion is reasonable with some understanding though expression may be limited. Analysis is effective sometimes and argument limited. Sparse use of supporting examples. IF NO REFERENCE TO TWO APPROPRIATE STRENGTHS AND TWO APPROPRIATE WEAKNESSES A MAXIMUM OF 6 MARKS CAN BE AWARDED
  • 10. 7-9 marks – There may be a range of strengths (2 or more) and weaknesses (2 or more) which are appropriate to the question, or there may be an imbalance between the two. Discussion is good with some understanding and good expression. Analysis is reasonably effective and argument is informed. Some use of supporting examples. 10-12 marks – There is a good range of strengths (2 or more) and weaknesses (2 or more) which are appropriate to the question. There is a good balance between the two. Discussion is detailed with good understanding and clear expression. Analysis is effective and argument well informed. Appropriate use of supporting examples. The answer is competently structured and organised. Answer is mostly grammatically correct with occasional spelling errors.Assumptions and strengths and weaknesses of the Approachesand Perspectives:-Cognitive:Developmental:
  • 11. Physiological:Social:
  • 12. Individual Differences: -Behaviourist
  • 13. PsychodynamicPractice QuestionsQuestion 1:Behaviourism (a) Outline one assumption of the behaviourist perspective. (2) (b) Describe how the behaviourist perspective could explain obedience.(4) (c) Describe one similarity and one difference between any studies that could be viewed from the behaviourist perspective.(6) (d) Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourist perspective using examples from any studies that can be viewed from this perspective. (12)Question 2: Social (a) Outline one assumption of the social approach. (2) (b) With reference to Milgram’s study, describe how the social approach could explain obedien
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    Jul 23, 2017
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