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1. Explanations of Criminal Behaviour 2. Qu. What makes the criminal? Nature Nurture 3. Positivism and Criminology <ul><li>Crime can only be understood if it…
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  • 1. Explanations of Criminal Behaviour
  • 2. Qu. What makes the criminal? Nature Nurture
  • 3. Positivism and Criminology <ul><li>Crime can only be understood if it is studied by the scientific method . </li></ul><ul><li>All criminal behaviour is determined - either internal or external forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. Would positivism accept the belief in free will ? </li></ul>
  • 4. Franz Gall (1800) - Phrenology <ul><li>The shape of your head therefore determines your mental abilities </li></ul>The size and shape of your head effects your brain growth. This is innate, and therefore fixed
  • 5. Cesaro Lombroso (1876) The criminal is a separate species, a species that is between modern and primitive humans. The physical shape of the head and face determined the &quot;born criminal&quot;.
  • 10. William Sheldon ( 1949) &quot;The Varieties of Delinquent Youth&quot; There is a strong correlation between body morphology (shape) and criminal behaviour in teenagers Some call me Will, but you can call me……….Ricky
  • 11. Convicts were most likely to mesomorphic, and least likely to be ectomorphic
  • 12. Is this good science? Help me here folks!!!
  • 13. Problems With Early Positivist Theories The research of the earliest positivists was plagued by poor: Methodology Testing Logic
  • 14. Genetic explanations of crime - XYY Jacobs et al (1965) suggested that men with the XYY syndrome were more aggressive than normal 'XY' men. XYY men are over-represented in the prison population. There are 15 sufferers per 1,000 in prisons and 1 per 1000 in the general population. TASK: Answer the questions on the sheet
  • 15. Qu. How would you scientifically demonstrate brain differences in criminals? PET Scanner
  • 16. Raine (1994) Method: Used PET Scan on violent killers
  • 17. Raine (1994) <ul><li>Method: He made them complete a cognitive task which involved sustained attention. </li></ul><ul><li>It involved watching a screen for 32 minutes and responding every time a 0 appeared. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: The impulsive killers missed many of the 0s. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage was also found in the pre-frontal cortex, which controls impulsive behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. What does this study therefore suggest? </li></ul>
  • 18. Oddly enough, pre-frontal under arousal has also been found in politicians!
  • 19. Qu. Do drugs influence crime? Qu. Which drug is most associated with criminality? Why?
  • 20. Steroids and violence? <ul><li>Individuals who take large amounts of steroids can become extremely violent (known as &quot;roid rage&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Horace Williams, a body builder, beat a man to death after taking 2000 x the recommended dosage of steroids. </li></ul>
  • 21. IMPORTANT QUESTION ! Do you think that people who commit crime are physically or mentally different from the rest of us? Hans Eysenck, 1950 I think they are!
  • 22. Crime and personality? Please answer the questions on the sheet that my good friend Tim has prepared for you. Good luck! Hans Eysenck, 1950
  • 23. Who is more likely to commit crime? Who is likely to not commit crime?
  • 24. Why are extroverts more likely to commit crime? Extraverts need excitement so they are more likely to be risk takers – leading to crime Extraverts do not condition easily. BUT – Little supporting research
  • 25. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME? Social learning theory Psychoanalytic theory Social psychology theory Who are they?
  • 26. Wansell (1996) Fred and Rosemary West <ul><li>Frederick and Rosemary West suffered terrible emotional & sexual abuse in their childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Could this be what created these 'serial killers‘? </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. What do you think? </li></ul>
  • 27. Can anyone use Freud’s theories to explain criminal behaviour? ID ? SUPEREGO ? EGO ?
  • 28. Alexander and Healy (1935) <ul><li>Children need to progress from the pleasure principal to the reality principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. How does the child do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Freud - The child needs a stable home environment to successfully make this transition. </li></ul><ul><li>Criminals are those children who do not make this transition. </li></ul>
  • 29. Qu. Can you recall any study that can verify this hypothesis? John Bowlby (1946) Can you recall my groundbreaking study? It was bloody brilliant!!!
  • 30. Child abuse & criminal behaviour? <ul><li>Ressler et al (1988) - Out of 36 sex murderers interviewed in the USA 42% were found to have been sexually abused as youngsters </li></ul><ul><li>Dietz and Warren (1995) found that 76% of the 41 serial rapists that they interviewed were abused when young. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. Can you think of any criticisms of the proposal that early childhood experiences influence crime? </li></ul>
  • 31. Sutherland (1939) Behaviourism & Crime <ul><li>The learning of criminal behaviour is no different from the learning of any other behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Most learning takes place within close personal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Learning includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques to carry out certain crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Specific attitudes and motives conducive towards committing crime; </li></ul>
  • 32. Who is this? A clue
  • 33. Bandura on crime: (answer the following questions) <ul><li>Qu. Where does the motivation come from to commit crime? </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. Who / where are children more likely to learn criminal behaviour from? </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. How would he explain the many gender differences we see reported in crime? </li></ul><ul><li>TASK: Find some research evidence to support the SLT of criminal behaviour </li></ul>
  • 34. Social learning theories of crime. An Evaluation; Go on then….slag my lovely theory off! You’ll need at least two criticisms!
  • Article on Vat

    Jul 23, 2017
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