Technology Shared Resource

1. Explanations of Criminal Behaviour 2. Qu. What makes the criminal? Nature Nurture 3. Positivism and Criminology <ul><li>Crime can only be understood if it…
of 34
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
  • 1. Explanations of Criminal Behaviour
  • 2. Qu. What makes the criminal? Nature Nurture
  • 3. Positivism and Criminology <ul><li>Crime can only be understood if it is studied by the scientific method . </li></ul><ul><li>All criminal behaviour is determined - either internal or external forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. Would positivism accept the belief in free will ? </li></ul>
  • 4. Franz Gall (1800) - Phrenology <ul><li>The shape of your head therefore determines your mental abilities </li></ul>The size and shape of your head effects your brain growth. This is innate, and therefore fixed
  • 5. Cesaro Lombroso (1876) The criminal is a separate species, a species that is between modern and primitive humans. The physical shape of the head and face determined the &quot;born criminal&quot;.
  • 10. William Sheldon ( 1949) &quot;The Varieties of Delinquent Youth&quot; There is a strong correlation between body morphology (shape) and criminal behaviour in teenagers Some call me Will, but you can call me……….Ricky
  • 11. Convicts were most likely to mesomorphic, and least likely to be ectomorphic
  • 12. Is this good science? Help me here folks!!!
  • 13. Problems With Early Positivist Theories The research of the earliest positivists was plagued by poor: Methodology Testing Logic
  • 14. Genetic explanations of crime - XYY Jacobs et al (1965) suggested that men with the XYY syndrome were more aggressive than normal 'XY' men. XYY men are over-represented in the prison population. There are 15 sufferers per 1,000 in prisons and 1 per 1000 in the general population. TASK: Answer the questions on the sheet
  • 15. Qu. How would you scientifically demonstrate brain differences in criminals? PET Scanner
  • 16. Raine (1994) Method: Used PET Scan on violent killers
  • 17. Raine (1994) <ul><li>Method: He made them complete a cognitive task which involved sustained attention. </li></ul><ul><li>It involved watching a screen for 32 minutes and responding every time a 0 appeared. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: The impulsive killers missed many of the 0s. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage was also found in the pre-frontal cortex, which controls impulsive behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. What does this study therefore suggest? </li></ul>
  • 18. Oddly enough, pre-frontal under arousal has also been found in politicians!
  • 19. Qu. Do drugs influence crime? Qu. Which drug is most associated with criminality? Why?
  • 20. Steroids and violence? <ul><li>Individuals who take large amounts of steroids can become extremely violent (known as &quot;roid rage&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Horace Williams, a body builder, beat a man to death after taking 2000 x the recommended dosage of steroids. </li></ul>
  • 21. IMPORTANT QUESTION ! Do you think that people who commit crime are physically or mentally different from the rest of us? Hans Eysenck, 1950 I think they are!
  • 22. Crime and personality? Please answer the questions on the sheet that my good friend Tim has prepared for you. Good luck! Hans Eysenck, 1950
  • 23. Who is more likely to commit crime? Who is likely to not commit crime?
  • 24. Why are extroverts more likely to commit crime? Extraverts need excitement so they are more likely to be risk takers – leading to crime Extraverts do not condition easily. BUT – Little supporting research
  • 25. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME? Social learning theory Psychoanalytic theory Social psychology theory Who are they?
  • 26. Wansell (1996) Fred and Rosemary West <ul><li>Frederick and Rosemary West suffered terrible emotional & sexual abuse in their childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Could this be what created these 'serial killers‘? </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. What do you think? </li></ul>
  • 27. Can anyone use Freud’s theories to explain criminal behaviour? ID ? SUPEREGO ? EGO ?
  • 28. Alexander and Healy (1935) <ul><li>Children need to progress from the pleasure principal to the reality principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. How does the child do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Freud - The child needs a stable home environment to successfully make this transition. </li></ul><ul><li>Criminals are those children who do not make this transition. </li></ul>
  • 29. Qu. Can you recall any study that can verify this hypothesis? John Bowlby (1946) Can you recall my groundbreaking study? It was bloody brilliant!!!
  • 30. Child abuse & criminal behaviour? <ul><li>Ressler et al (1988) - Out of 36 sex murderers interviewed in the USA 42% were found to have been sexually abused as youngsters </li></ul><ul><li>Dietz and Warren (1995) found that 76% of the 41 serial rapists that they interviewed were abused when young. </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. Can you think of any criticisms of the proposal that early childhood experiences influence crime? </li></ul>
  • 31. Sutherland (1939) Behaviourism & Crime <ul><li>The learning of criminal behaviour is no different from the learning of any other behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Most learning takes place within close personal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Learning includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques to carry out certain crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Specific attitudes and motives conducive towards committing crime; </li></ul>
  • 32. Who is this? A clue
  • 33. Bandura on crime: (answer the following questions) <ul><li>Qu. Where does the motivation come from to commit crime? </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. Who / where are children more likely to learn criminal behaviour from? </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. How would he explain the many gender differences we see reported in crime? </li></ul><ul><li>TASK: Find some research evidence to support the SLT of criminal behaviour </li></ul>
  • 34. Social learning theories of crime. An Evaluation; Go on then….slag my lovely theory off! You’ll need at least two criticisms!
  • Article on Vat

    Jul 23, 2017
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks