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1. Basic Philosophy ã This model’s basic assumption is that a person’s thoughts are responsible for their behaviour. ã The model deals with how information is…
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  • 1. Basic Philosophy • This model’s basic assumption is that a person’s thoughts are responsible for their behaviour. • The model deals with how information is processed in the brain and the impact of this on behaviour. The individual is an active processor of information. • How a person, perceives, anticipates and evaluates events rather than the events themselves, which will have an impact on behaviour. Beck and Ellis are the two psychologists most often associated with this explanation who suggested that, Irrational thinking (Ellis 1962) and the cognitive triad and errors in logic (Beck 1967) create abnormal behaviour. There basic assumptions are: • Maladaptive behaviour is cause by faulty and irrational cognitions • It sit he way you think about a problem, rather than the problem itself that causes mental disorders • Individuals can overcome mental disorders by learning to use more appropriate cognitions • Aim to be positive and rational Irrational thinking Ellis (1962) • Cognitions affect behaviour: Your behaviour is primarily affected by your thoughts and cognitions. Healthy thoughts and cognitions lead to normal behaviour, whereas faulty thoughts and cognitions lead to abnormal behaviour. Beck (1969) called these irrational thoughts ‘cognitive errors’ or ‘faulty thinking’. • As a rule we make sense of the world around us using the cognitive process. This is generally believed to be an automatic process, in other words we do not really think about it. Any attributions we make also help in this process. o In people with psychological problems these thought processes tend to be negative and the attributions made will be inaccurate: o People may also have inaccurate expectations which will make it more likely that they will happen…. Self-fulfilling prophecy…people with a psychological problem may lack confidence in their ability to achieve their goals and therefore their illogical thoughts do not reflect reality and these thought will affect their behaviour. Draw in the example of this form of thinking from the book Figure 7.3 p 235 1
  • 2. Ellis claims that people are inclined to exaggerate or catastophize events • Cognitive processes can be faulty. o Overgeneralisations: A conclusion is reached based on one event or incident. Such as missing a shot at netball means you are completely useless in life. o Polarised thinking: Seeing everything in black or while o Magnification and minimization: Here the person makes magnify failure and minimize success. Which do you say;  My glass is half full  My glass is half empty o Tyranny of should, ought and must: I must be loved by everyone. o Catastrophizing: making a mountain out of a molehill. • A cognitive change can lead to a behavioural change. This is demonstrated in the therapies The Cognitive Triad and errors in logic (Beck 1967) Beck believed that negative thoughts underlie mental disorders and he was particularly keen to find out why people suffered with depression. He identified two mechanisms that he thought were responsible for it. • Errors in Logic • Cognitive triad Draw in the cognitive triad Figure 7.4 p 235 2
  • 3. Activity: The cognitive triad. (P234 of textbook` Activity box on the left) Evaluation of the cognitive model Research support Irrational thinking Individual responsibility. The model has been criticised because it seems to suggest that we should belief sufficient. Ellis has little sympathy for those who suffered with depression believing it to be an over indulgence of self defeating thoughts. Blame then is blame clearly at the feet of the individual rather than the social environment. Therefore attention but 3
  • 4. be withdrawn from the need to improve social conditions that have a positive impact on life. Cognitive therapies: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: • REBT (Ellis 1962) • Beck’s Cognitive therapy. (Beck et al 1985) • SIT: (Meichenbaum 9172) • CBT & treating Schizophrenia REBT: (Ellis 1962) This is rational emotive behaviour therapy which uses a three step process (ABC based on his idea on how psychological problems start. Ellis suggests that REBT helps people to ‘cure’ themselves because they become less disturbed and less anxious and this state can be maintained for long periods or even permanently. His aim is that eventually an individual will include REBT into their daily life style to overcome procrastination and stop self-defeating thoughts. A: Activating event Linda gets a low mark in her mock A level exam B: Belief (about A) Rational thoughts Irrational thoughts Linda tells herself that she could Linda tells herself that she should have have done better, but did not put done well and this means she will fail in in enough revision. the final exams C: Consequence (of B) Desired Emotion Undesirable emotion Linda feels disappointed with her efforts. Linda feels that she must be awful at psychology Desirable behaviour Linda resolves to put in more efforts for her Undesirable behaviour 4 final exams Linda decides to give college
  • 5. • Beck’s Cognitive therapy. (Beck et al 1985) Four basic assumptions underlie CBT 1. Patients respond on the basis of their interpretation of themselves and the world around them rather than on the basis of what is actually happening.. Key to this first step is the idea of interpretation bias. (this being the tendency of the most stressed/ depressed person to interpret the situation in a negative /threatening was. 2. Thoughts behaviours and feelings are all inter-related and all influence each other. Therefore no single factor is more important than the other. 3. In order for therapeutic intervention to succeed therapists must clarify and change how people think about themselves and the world around them. A major part in this involves reducing or eliminating their interpretive biases about themselves. 4. It is important to change both the patient’s cognitive processes and his/her behaviour. The reason fro this is that the benefits of therapy are likely to be greater than when only cognitive processes or behaviour change Using the scenario below describe how the thoughts emotions and behaviour described in it can be changed It is you birthday sand you are given a surprise invitation to meet your friends at lunchtime to celebrate. You are disappointed to find your best friend does not join you and gives no reason or apology. 5
  • 6. Irrational/negative Rational/positive Thoughts Emotions Behaviour • SIT: (Meichenbaum 9172) This is Meichenbaum’s stress inoculation therapy which was discussed in stress Brief summary so that it comes back to you! • CBT & treating Schizophrenia Evaluation of CBT Diverse application 6
  • 7. Appeal of CBT Use of CBT in treating depression (Look at Fava et al’s work) Ethics. 7
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