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1. THE LEARNING APPROACH How ‘nurture’ shapes us 2. Today’s session You will learn how to... You will learn about... <ul><li>Describe the assumptions of…
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  • 1. THE LEARNING APPROACH How ‘nurture’ shapes us
  • 2. Today’s session You will learn how to... You will learn about... <ul><li>Describe the assumptions of psychological approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviourism </li></ul>
  • 3. “ Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” John B. Watson (1919) <ul><li>What claim is Watson making about human nature? </li></ul>
  • 4. WE ARE BORN WITH A BLANK SLATE <ul><li>To what extent do you agree with this statement? </li></ul><ul><li>We are shaped into the person we are by our social world </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus and Response </li></ul>KEY WORDS <ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>(+) (-) reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and secondary reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious reinforcement </li></ul>
  • 6. 2 KEY ASSUMPTIONS <ul><li>BLANK SLATE </li></ul><ul><li>We are shaped by our environment by means of reinforcements and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>2. SEEING IS BELIEVING </li></ul><ul><li>The only way to explain behaviour is by measuring what you can observe . </li></ul><ul><li>Data must be scientifically gathered using scientific principles </li></ul>
  • 7. 3 Types of LEARNING <ul><li>OC – behaviour is voluntary and considers punishments and rewards. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stickers, token economy, detention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CC – stimulus and response of reflexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye blink, knee-jerk, breathing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good at explaining phobias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SLT – we learn through watching and copying others especially role models and people we look up to </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Observations (definition and strengths & weaknesses) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic , structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non- Participant and participant, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covert and overt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chi Squared </li></ul><ul><li>Lab experiments </li></ul>Methodology and PRACTICAL <ul><li>KEY WORDS TO LEARN </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-observer reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Tallying </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological validity </li></ul><ul><li>Time sampling </li></ul>
  • 9. STUDIES IN DETAIL <ul><li>SOCIAL LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>BANDURA (1961) study of how aggressive models might be copied by children </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSICAL CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><li>WATSON & RAYNOR (1920) Little Albert </li></ul>
  • 10. KEY ISSUE – you choose! The influence of role models on anorexia The influence of advertising on people’s behaviour The increase in female violence to changing role models
  • 11. CONTENT <ul><li>The main features of CC,OC, SLT </li></ul><ul><li>One therapy </li></ul><ul><li>How OC and SLT explain gender development and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with biological and psychodynamic </li></ul>
  • 12. Exam Questions <ul><li>Explain 2 ways in which the learning approach differs from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological approach [4marks] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic approach [4 marks] </li></ul></ul>
  • resume.2013.docx

    Jul 23, 2017


    Jul 23, 2017
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