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1. WALT Stress related illness and the immune system 2. WILF <ul><li>Link between stress and illness </li></ul><ul><li>Outline how the…
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  • 1. WALT Stress related illness and the immune system
  • 2. WILF <ul><li>Link between stress and illness </li></ul><ul><li>Outline how the immune system works </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and evaluate research into the effect of stress on the immune system </li></ul>
  • 3. Link between stress and illness <ul><li>Much research shows that people who experience stress are more likely to develop illnesses of various kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>Using what you learned last lesson and common sense see how many reasons you can come up with to explain this. </li></ul><ul><li>5 minutes to do this in pairs. </li></ul>
  • 4. Link between stress and illness <ul><li>You might have come up with: </li></ul><ul><li>Stress weakens immune system (Direct effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress response  glucose in blood  furring of arteries  heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>Stress  maladaptive coping  illness (Indirect effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual may have a genetic predisposition – stress acts as the trigger. (Diathesis-Stress model) </li></ul>
  • 5. Explain using evidence 3 main pathways by which stress can effect our health. <ul><li>Direct effect – study by Cohen(1991) – exposed healthy participants to 5 respiratory viruses. Those most likely to develop a cold were those who were rated as high is stress levels based on questionnaire.. </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability – Physical vulnerability – those with high blood pressure were more vulnerable to stress  hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho-social causes – poor, very young, elderly, homeless, noise, overcrowding – vulnerable groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural changes under stress  smoking, drinking alcohol, drinking coffee, less exercise. </li></ul>
  • 6. Link between stress and illness – A02 point <ul><li>An association between stress and illness does not prove that stress causes illness. </li></ul><ul><li>If stress does cause illness, the association alone doesn’t show how. </li></ul>
  • 7. The immune system <ul><li>Some ‘points of interest’ </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if your immune system stopped working altogether? </li></ul>
  • 8. The immune system <ul><li>If the skin didn’t secrete antibacterial substances you’d wake up each morning with mould growing on your face. </li></ul><ul><li>Allergies involve the immune system ‘overreacting’ (to harmless substances) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar problem with organ transplants </li></ul>
  • 9. The immune system <ul><li>What is the difference between: </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Think of examples </li></ul>
  • 10. What is the Immune system and how does the Immune system work? <ul><li>Define key terms and give examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Leucocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Immuno-suppression </li></ul><ul><li>TH1 and TH2 Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines </li></ul>
  • 11. Stress and the Immune system <ul><li>Explain the basic workings of the immune system and the effect of stress on the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Leucocytes (white blood cells) engulf pathogens eg. bacteria, viruses. Recognise and attach invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Invaders – antigens may be directly attacked or warded off by the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of antibodies that bind onto antigens to mark them for destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for inflammation following injury – bringing increased supplies of white blood cells to the area to kill invading pathogens such as bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Immuno-suppression -- When under stress our bodies produce cortico-steroids which suppress the functioning of the immune system – interfering with production of antibodies and the process of inflamation. Stress also increases the levels of adrenalin and noradrenalin in the blood stream – which also appear to suppress the immune system. </li></ul>
  • 12. Research on Stress and the Immune system <ul><li>Make a summary of the aims, method, findings, conclusions and 2 criticisms for each study. </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen (1991) – susceptibility to cold virus and stress </li></ul><ul><li>Kiecolt Glaser (1984) – Research into Acute stressors – Examinations </li></ul><ul><li>Kiecolt Glaser (1995) – Chronic Stress – Carers of relatives with Alzheimers </li></ul><ul><li>Segerstrom et al (2004) Meta analysis </li></ul>
  • 13. Can Stress have positive effects? <ul><li>Find research evidence to show positive effects of stress... Linked to immune system. (Evans 1994) </li></ul>
  • 14. Evaluation <ul><li>Lazarus (1992) gives reasons why it is difficult to establish a relationship between stress and illness: </li></ul><ul><li>Health is affected by a variety of factors (eg life style, genetics, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Health is generally fairly stable and slow to change </li></ul><ul><li>Most research has concentrated on short term effects – not how stress effects long term health. </li></ul>
  • 15. Individual differences <ul><li>Research has shown other factors can also effect the stress/immune relationship: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul>
  • 16. Plenary – Real world applications <ul><li>Based on what you have learned about the relationship between stress and illness – </li></ul><ul><li>Make some suggestions for techniques that could be useful in coping with stress that could improve well- being. </li></ul>
  • 17. Homework <ul><li>Complete set readings and questions on Stress and Illness. </li></ul>
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