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1. Eyewitness Testimony Can we believe it? 2. Elizabeth Loftus et. Al. <ul><li>Much research in this area has been carried out by Loftus et al…
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  • 1. Eyewitness Testimony Can we believe it?
  • 2. Elizabeth Loftus et. Al. <ul><li>Much research in this area has been carried out by Loftus et al </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have highlighted inaccuracies in eyewitness testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Most studies have used videos or slides followed by questionnaires. </li></ul>
  • 3. Misleading Information <ul><li>Information presented AFTER an event can be combined with the existing memory to cause inaccuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Leading questions given to participants appear to change the memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Even when offered financial incentive participants cannot regain accuracy. </li></ul>
  • 4. Loftus <ul><li>Using your text book find a study by Loftus that illustrates misleading information. </li></ul><ul><li>Write brief notes to say: how they studied this what they found what problems there were with the research. </li></ul>
  • 5. Reconstructive Memory <ul><li>It has been suggested that we use existing knowledge & experience, which is stored in the form of schema, to help us remember. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstructive memory can be seen as ‘effort for meaning’ – ‘filling in the gaps’ </li></ul>
  • 6. Schema & Reconstrucion <ul><li>A schema is a packet of information about a thing/experience etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a cluster of related facts based on previous experience. </li></ul><ul><li>We use schemas to help us generate future expections. </li></ul>
  • 7. List 1986 <ul><li>List’s study illustrates how schema for shoplifting will influence our recall. </li></ul><ul><li>People were much more likely to recall events which fit in with schema (high probability) than those which do no (low probability) </li></ul>
  • 8. List 1886 <ul><li>Write VERY brief notes to say how List studied the influence of schema </li></ul><ul><li>What problems are there with this study? </li></ul>
  • 9. Anxiety <ul><li>Studies of emotional factors in memory show conflicting evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases anxiety has been found to help memory e.g. flashbulb memories. </li></ul><ul><li>In others it appears to make people forget e.g. repression. </li></ul>
  • 10. Weapons Focus <ul><li>This is suggested by Loftus to account for the fact that in lab. Studies participants appear to focus on the weapon rather than any other details. </li></ul>
  • 11. Loftus & Burns 1982 <ul><li>See page 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Write VERY brief notes to say: how they studied this what they found why was this challenged by Christianson & Hubinette (1993) </li></ul>
  • 12. Age of witness <ul><li>Adults are aware of the consequences of identification of suspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Children may not fully understand the consequences of their identification of suspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Passing time has more affect on children’s memories than adult’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The elderly suffer similar effects to memory as children. </li></ul>
  • 13. Poole & Lindsay 2001 <ul><li>Look at the study on page 30/31 </li></ul><ul><li>Make VERY brief notes to say: how they studied this what did they find are there any problems with this research? </li></ul>
  • 14. Individual Differences <ul><li>Some people appear more affected by misleading information, anxiety etc. than others. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be because of individual memory; differences in imagination or how empathetic they are. </li></ul>
  • 15. General Problems for Research in this area <ul><li>Laboratory studies are artificial, in real life more likely to be distracted </li></ul><ul><li>Events on film are not as shocking/emotional as real life. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants may act in a way to please the experimenter </li></ul><ul><li>In the lab. There are no real consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Lab studies often deal with trivial details. </li></ul>
  • PE-Crani

    Jul 23, 2017
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