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1. Card sort; each trio of cards has a criticism of EWT research on it. Place these in the circles according to how strong a criticism of it is. Think about which of the…
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  • 1. Card sort; each trio of cards has a criticism of EWT research on it. Place these in the circles according to how strong a criticism of it is. Think about which of the 3 ways of stating the issue is the best one & tick this one using a wipeable marker. This task is for two purposes: 1) Revision of criticisms of EWT research 2) Revision of exam skills. You should focus on the quality of the answer as well as its content, think about which types of answers would get the most marks, and which answers are good but could be made shorter. External validity of studies called in to question In many experiments Loftus used her students. This is an because they’re lab based so don’t reflect the unrepresentative sample as students may have characteristics emotional response people have in real-world which the rest of the population does not have. situations. There you may not be able to generalise their results to real world settings. Studies which look In many experiments Loftus used her students. This is a at real-world ewt find memory isn’t as affected by problem because students lack population validity. misleading information as lab based studies imply. In many experiments Loftus used her students. This is an Many of the studies are lab based therefore they lack unrepresentative sample as students may have characteristics ecological validity. which the rest of the population does not have and using your students may increase the likelihood of demand External validity of studies called in to question characteristics. This is a problem because results from this because they’re lab based so don’t reflect the population may not be generalisable to the rest of the emotional response people have in real-world population (lack population validity). situations. There you may not be able to generalise their results to real world settings. Some of the EWT research may have had ethical issues. For example, Loftus and Burns showed footage of a boy getting his head blown off, this may have been upsetting and disturbing for Pps. The own-age bias means that we can’t trust the results of any research into the recall of older Some of the EWT research may have had ethical issues. For witnesses for events because they tend to use people example Loftus and Burns showed footage of a boy getting who are younger than the participants in the crime his head blown off, this may have been upsetting and videos they show. disturbing for pps. This is a problem because experiment guidelines state that researchers should do no harm to A problem with some research into EWT in different participants – including psychological harm. age groups is the ‘own-age bias’ – because a lot of research into this issue used young actors in videos Some of the EWT research may have had ethical issues. For shown to participants no matter what age the example Loftus and Burns showed footage of a boy getting participants were the evidence on older people’s his head blown off, this may have been upsetting and recall may not be valid. disturbing for pps. This is a problem because experiment guidelines state that researchers should do no harm to A problem with some research into EWT in different participants – including psychological harm. Therefore this age groups is the ‘own-age bias’ – because a lot of type of research should never have gone ahead as it is research into this issue used young actors in videos clearly unethical. shown to participants no matter what age the participants were the evidence on older people’s recall may not be reliable. In studies into EWT p’s had an In studies into EWT p’s had an expectation that In studies into EWT p’s arousal expectation that they’d they’d witness some event so there was no element level is likely to be different to witness some event so there of surprise – which is unlike a real world situation. what a real life situation would was no element of surprise – There arousal level is thus unlikely to be the same as be because they’re in a lab which is unlike a real world in a real world situation; in a lab it might be higher setting. This is a problem situation. for low-level events (e.g. when you don’t know because results may lack you’re witnessing a crime), but lower for traumatic external validity; we may not be events (e.g. a gun crime). This is a problem because able to apply the findings to real results may lack external validity; we may not be world situations. able to apply the findings to real world situations.
  • 2. An addition to the above is based on giving students cards with the below short statements on and asking them to: 1) arrange these into order of relevance to EWT research, or how strong/weak they are, or how likely they are to use them in the exam. 2) Ask them to link these key statements to the above texts 3) Ask them to chose the best answer from the trios above #Lab based so external validity problem Student samples so lacking population validity. Own-age bias = research on older ages may not be accurate Ethical issues Demand characteristics This should get them thinking about answers for different types of questions, what types of criticisms they’re most likely to use and why and whether some criticisms are weak and for what reason (e.g. I think the ethics claim is pretty dubious).
  • 3. Part 2 : For each image below, write a sentence or two on what they make you think of in the context of the memory topic. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
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