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1. g) Courts children as witnesses <ul><li>Rudy & Goodman – child witnesses reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Ps 4 ( n 18) 7yos ( n 18)…
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  • 1. g) Courts children as witnesses <ul><li>Rudy & Goodman – child witnesses reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Ps 4 ( n 18) 7yos ( n 18) </li></ul><ul><li>IV1 age </li></ul><ul><li>IV2 bystander/victim </li></ul><ul><li>DV response to Qs </li></ul><ul><li>result: only 1 5yo made false accusation; other testimony accurate </li></ul>
  • 2. g) Courts children as witnesses <ul><li>Bidrose and Goodman </li></ul><ul><li>distress / age </li></ul><ul><li>‘ scientific’ case study </li></ul><ul><li>n=5 aged 8-13 </li></ul><ul><li>Testimony in pre-trial hearings cf. </li></ul><ul><li>Police surveillance tapes </li></ul><ul><li>80% accurate </li></ul>
  • 3. g) Courts influencing juries <ul><li>Pennington and Hastie </li></ul><ul><li>IV1 story/witness order </li></ul><ul><li>IV2 prosecution / defence use S or W order </li></ul><ul><li>story order beats witness order (IV2 no difference so no order effects) </li></ul>1 2 3
  • 4. g) Courts influencing juries <ul><li>Sigall & Ostrove – attraction fx on juries </li></ul><ul><li>IV1 un/attractive/control </li></ul><ul><li>IV2 burglary/fraud </li></ul><ul><li>DV mean sentence (y) </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>burglar </li></ul><ul><li>fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>attractiveness favoured by juries unless exploited for crime </li></ul>A: 2.8 U/a: 5.2 C: 5.2 A: 5.5 U/a: 4.4 C: 4.4
  • 5. g) Courts influencing juries <ul><li>Yale Model of persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Source – (barrister/witness) credible / attractive </li></ul><ul><li>Message – (case) 1 or 2 sided; vivid; primacy / recency / story order </li></ul><ul><li>Medium – verbal + images </li></ul><ul><li>Target – (jury) sympathy / knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Situation – (court) formality / informality </li></ul>ABC
  • 6. <ul><li>Schachter (1951) The Johnny Rocco Study Students in groups discussed young juvenile delinquent (Johnny Rocco) </li></ul><ul><li>IV confederate roles: </li></ul><ul><li>modal (agreed w/ majority) </li></ul><ul><li>slider (disagreed, then agreed) </li></ul><ul><li>deviate (disagreed) </li></ul><ul><li>DV1: time talking to confederate </li></ul><ul><li>DV2: liking each member </li></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><li>P's talked most to slider & deviate, until slider changed and deviate would not change. Deviate then shunned </li></ul><ul><li>Ps liked conforming members better and slider most. </li></ul><ul><li>All Ps disliked the deviate the most. </li></ul>
  • 7. g) Courts jury processes <ul><li>Asch - influence of group on individual decisions: </li></ul><ul><li>5 people stronger influence than fewer </li></ul><ul><li>FX not increased with more than 5 </li></ul><ul><li>BUT addition of only 1 other dissenter reduces group FX significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Saks - 1977 REVIEW bigger juries fairer; </li></ul><ul><li>more deliberation: more time on discussion less on voting etc.; </li></ul><ul><li>more accurate recall; </li></ul><ul><li>less conformity (minority view less likely to be one person); </li></ul><ul><li>tend to produce more consistent verdicts; </li></ul>Only real participant The lines task I think this might be Asch himself! 1 2 3
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