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1. Developmental Psychology Core studiesExam:Developmental psychology is concerned with how children & adults change as they get older.Developmental psychology looks…
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  • 1. Developmental Psychology Core studiesExam:Developmental psychology is concerned with how children & adults change as they get older.Developmental psychology looks at various influences on development, such as the influencesof parents, peers and other people around you. These are all environmental influences (called nurture). Changes also happen as a consequence of nature. ‘Nature’ refers to biological factors such as age, gender, genes etc. Learning Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to: • Describe and evaluate the developmental approach in psychology; • Describe and evaluate various methodologies used by the developmental approach; • Consider pertinent issues, perspectives and debates, context and theory, strengths and limitations and the implications of core studies of the developmental approach.SAMUEL, J. & BRYANT, P. (1984) Asking Only One Question in the ConservationExperiment.Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry. 25. 315-318FREUD, S. (1909) Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year Old Boy. Pelican Freud Library.Vol. 8.Case Histories 1BANDURA, A., ROSS, D. & ROSS, S. (1961) Transmission of Aggression through Imitation ofAggressive Models. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology. 63. 575-582
  • 2. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Developmental GlossarySamuel and BryantTransformation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..One judgement condition…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Standard condition……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Conservation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………Fixed array…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................Snapshot research……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….FreudCase study …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Phallic stages…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Oedipus complex ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Castration anxiety………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................Researcher bias ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Longitudinal Research…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Bandura, Ross and RossReinforcement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........................Role model...........................................................................................................................................................Imitative aggression …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Non-imitative aggression …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Social Learning Theory ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................Behaviourist Perspective …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 2
  • 3. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Developmental ApproachAssumptions of the Developmental Approach:  Strengths and Weaknesses of the Developmental ApproachStrengths WeaknessesImplications Implications Page 3
  • 4. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Background information Piaget: Structuralist theory of cognitive development PiagetPiaget: Structuralist theory of cognitive development Page 4
  • 5. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Cut out and rearrange the sections below into the correct order. Piaget; Structuralist theory of cognitive development. AGE STAGE 0-2 years Pre-operational stage At this stage: children use more sophisticated mental operations. E.g. Can conserve their ability is still limited e.g. they tend to think about the world in terms of how it is, and find it hard to speculate on how it might be. more than one aspect of a situation can be taken into account at the same time (De-centre) During this stage, mental operations can be carried out in the child’s head. 2 - 7 years Sensori- motor stageAt this stage children have:Egocentrism: difficulty understanding that others do not see, think and feel things like you do. Can’t de-centre.Lack of conservation: inability to realise that some things remain the same despite changes in their appearance(e.g. amount of water from one glass to another which is a different shape) 7 - 11 years Formal operational stageThis is shown by:Profound EGO CENTRISM: The child can not at first distinguish between itself and its environmentLack of OBJECT PERMANENCE: when the infant cannot see an object (e.g.if it falls out of their pram) they donot look for it (they think it no longer exists) 11 years and above Concrete operational stageDuring this stage the child gains understanding of its environment by using its senses in combination withmovement. Page 5
  • 6. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Page 6
  • 7. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Samuel and Bryant Asking Only One Question in the Conservation Experiment.AimsWhat method was used in this study? Provide evidence to support your answer.Choose from: Experiment Observation Case study Self Report Page 7
  • 8. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachWhat design was used in this study? Provide evidence to support your answer.Choose from:Independent Measures Design Repeated Measures Design Matched Pairs DesignParticipantsProcedure Page 8
  • 9. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachProcedure: Look at the table below which has been done for volume. Using it to guide youand using the plasticine and counters provided, try to complete the other two tables. Procedure for Volume Pre Pre Transformation Post transformation Transformation Transformation Question Question Questions Two Shown two Asked if either One beaker Asked if either same size beaker contains poured into beaker contains beakers of more water or another beaker. more water or water. same. same. Judgement One Shown two same One beaker poured Asked if they are size beakers of into another the same or water. beaker. different or same. Shown two beakers Asked if they are Fixed Array of water, one tall the same or one small each different. containing the same amount of water. Procedure for Mass Pre transformation Pre Transformation Transformation Post Transformation Question Question Two Questions One Judgement Fixed Array Page 9
  • 10. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Procedure for Number Pre transformation Pre Transformation Transformation Post Transformation Question Question Two Questions One Judgement Array Fixed Results: Comparison of age categories Age Standard One Judgement Fixed Array 5years 6 years 7 years 8 yearsConclusion Page 10
  • 11. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Results: Comparison of material Standard One-Judgement Fixed Array Mass Number VolumeConclusion Evaluation: Issues to consider – ethics method sample design procedure reliability and validity. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Page 11
  • 12. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachSuggest how your chosen study could be improved. (8)Outline the implications of the improvements you have suggested for yourchosen study. (8) What changes would you make? What would be the effect of the changes?Note – you need to write enough in each column for 8 marks. Page 12
  • 13. AS Psychology Developmental Approach SAMUEL & BRYANTSECTION A QUESTIONS1. From the study by Samuel & Bryant on conservation, identify four factors that affect a child’s ability to conserve. (4)2. Samuel & Bryant’s study on conservation had three conditions. Briefly describe two of these conditions. (4)3. The study by Samuel & Bryant involved conducting interviews with children. a. Describe one problem that psychologists have to consider when they interview (2) children. b. Suggest how psychologists might deal with this problem. (2)4. Outline two conclusions that can be drawn from Samuel & Bryant’s study into conservation. (4)5. Samuel & Bryant’s study considered the validity of Piaget’s methods of assessing conservation. a. Explain what ‘validity’ means. (2) b. Outline one difference between the method used by Piaget and the method used by Samuel & Bryant. (2)6. From Samuel & Bryant’s study on conservation, give one piece of evidence that supports Piaget’s claims and one piece of evidence that challenges Piaget’s claims about children’s ability to conserve. (4)7. Outline one way the results from the study by Samuel & Bryant show that cognitive development has taken place. (2)Section B a. Briefly outline the previous research or event which was the stimulus for this study. (2) b. Describe how the sample in this study was selected and suggest one advantage of using this sample (6) (3+3) c. Explain why your chosen study can be considered a laboratory experiment. (6) d. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of conducting your chosen study (6) in a laboratory. (3+3) e. Suggest how your chosen study could be improved. (8) f. Outline the implications of the improvements you have suggested in your chosen study. (8) Page 13
  • 14. AS Psychology Developmental Approach FREUD (1909) ‘Analysis of a Phobia in a Five Year Old Boy’ WARNING! This study needs to be thought of in the context of the Developmental Approach AND the Psychodynamic Perspective. The Oedipus Complex – what is it? Where does it get its name from? What about Electra complex – what is it?AimWhat method was used in this study? Provide evidence to support your answer.Choose from: Experiment Observation Case study Self ReportWhat methodological design was used in this study? Provide evidence to support youranswer. Choose from: Longitudinal Snapshot Page 14
  • 15. Describe how these Freudian defence mechanisms are evident in this case study. Displacement: Identification:ProcedureSeveral dreams and fantasies are described in the case study. Outline two of each.Dreams:Fantasies:
  • 16. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachResults:All of Freud’s results are in the form of _____________________ data. In the tablebelow, provide evidence for each finding.Evidence of the Oedipus Complex Evidence of the phallic stageEvidence that the horse represents the Evidence of leading questionsfather Could Freud have got it wrong? What about other interpretations?Event Freudian Conclusion Alternative interpretation InterpretationHans felt anxiety over Sexual arousal of being Oedipus complex –mother’s desertion. taken into his mother’s love for his mother. bed. The white horse Castration anxiety.Hans had a fear of symbolised his father.being bitten by a white The blinkers and bithorse with black were symbolic of hisblinkers and bit. father’s glasses and moustache. Page 16
  • 17. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachConclusion Evaluation:Issues to consider – ethics method sample design procedure reliability and validity. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Page 17
  • 18. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachSuggest how your chosen study could be improved. (8)Outline the implications of the improvements you have suggested for yourchosen study. (8) What changes would you make? What would be the effect of the changes?Note – you need to write enough in each column for 8 marks. Page 18
  • 19. AS Psychology Developmental Approach FREUDSECTION A QUESTIONS1. Freud suggested that Hans’ fear of horses symbolised his fear of this father. Outline two piecesof evidence that support this suggestion. (4 marks)2. In Freud’s study of Hans, several dreams or fantasies are described.Outline two of these. (4marks)3. Freud describes Hans as a ‘little Oedipus’. a) Explain briefly what the Oedipus complex is. (2 marks) b) Give one example from the study by Freud of how Hans was a little Oedipus. (2 marks)4. Freud suggested that boys go through a phallic stage in the course of their early development. a) Identify two features of the phallic stage which were shown by Little Hans. (2 marks) b) Give one weakness in the evidence that is used to support this conclusion about Little Hans.5. The study by Freud of Little Hans provided an explanation of how a phobia develops. a) Outline Freud’s explanation of the development of Hans’ phobia of horses. (2 marks) b) Suggest an alternative explanation of Hans’ phobia of horses. (2 marks)6. The study by Freud contains the following extract of a conversation between Hans and his father:Father: When the horse fell down did you think of your daddy?Hans: Perhaps. Yes it’s possible. a) Explain why Hans might think of his father when the horse fell down. (2 marks) b) Give one problem with this type of questioning. (2 marks)SECTION B QUESTIONSa) Describe the aim of the study by Freud. (2 marks)b) Describe how data was collected in the study by Freud. (6 marks)c) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of the method used to collect data in the study by Freud.(6 marks)d) Describe two ethical issues that are important in the study by Freud. (6 marks)e) Outline the conclusions of the study by Freud. (8 marks)f) Suggest two changes to the study by Freud and outline how these changes might affect theresults. (8 marks) Page 19
  • 20. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Transmission of Aggression through Imitation of Aggressive ModelsAim The four hypotheses: 1 2 3 4What method was used in this study? Provide evidence to support your answer.Choose from: Experiment Observation Case study Self ReportWhat design was used in this study? Provide evidence to support your answer. Choosefrom:Independent Measures Design Repeated Measures Design Matched Pairs DesignIV and DV Page 20
  • 21. AS Psychology Developmental Approach How many children? 5-point scale Condition 1 Condition 2 Control Shhhh! POW!!Aggressive Non-aggressive ! Page 21
  • 22. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachList the controls Bandura used in this study of aggression:Stage 1 MODELLINGStage 2 – AGGRESSION AROUSALStage 3 – TEST FOR DELAYED IMITATION Collect some photographs of the study Page 22
  • 23. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachStory board: Page 23
  • 24. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Strengths and Weaknesses of Behaviours rated Observations Three measures of imitation: 1.  2. 3.  Two measures of partially imitative behaviour: 1. 2.  Four measures of non-imitated aggression: 1.  2. 3. 4. Bandura also links his findings with Freuds IDENTIFICATION WITH THE AGGRESSOR. This theory says that we fear aggression from authority figures who remind us of our parents, so we become just like the aggressor in order to reduce this anxiety. Bandura goes a bit further, suggesting children dont need to have a close relationship with the aggressor in order to imitate them.Describe how this Freudian defence mechanism is evident in this study. Identification with the aggressor. Results Page 24
  • 25. AS Psychology Developmental Approach Conclusions Evaluation:Issues to consider – ethics method sample design procedure reliability and validity. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Page 25
  • 26. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachSuggest how your chosen study could be improved. (8)Outline the implications of the improvements you have suggested for yourchosen study. (8) What changes would you make? What would be the effect of the changes?Note – you need to write enough in each column for 8 marks. Exam Tip – in the exam you MUST contextualise point example comment (P.E.C) Page 26
  • 27. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachB 1 2A 3N 4D 5U 6 7R 8 9A 10C 11RO 12 13SS 14W 15ORAcros Across:D Down: 1. The total number of response units recorded 1. Each child spent this long (in minutes)D for each child with the modeld 3. Observers sat behind this 2. Bandura was interested in this. 4. The place where the university nursery was 3. The aggressive model hit the Bobo doll with this. 7. One type of imitative or non-imitative aggression 5. The sex of the model that also became an observer for all 72 experimental sessions. 9. Children spent this number of minutes in the experimental room 6. A type of imitative and non-imitative aggression10. Children were assigned to aggressive model or non-aggressive model conditions using this 8. The room with the special toys was used method to increase this in the children.11. Children were shown how to make prints using 13. The aggressive model hit the Bobo doll on this vegetable his ....12. If a child shot darts at objects in the room, the 14. One example of spoken imitative child was noted down as exhibiting aggressive aggression …......15. A matched pairs design ensures participants only take part in this number of conditions Page 27
  • 28. AS Psychology Developmental Approach BANDURA ROSS AND ROSSSECTION A QUESTIONS1. In the study by Bandura et al. the observers classified the children’s aggressive behaviour as imitative or non-imitative. a) Give one example imitative aggression and one example of non-imitative aggression in the study. (2) b) Why did they look at both types of aggression? (2)2. The study by Bandura et al. was a well-controlled experiment. a) Identify two variables that were controlled. (2) b) Explain how each of these variables was controlled by the researchers. (2)3. In the study by Bandura et al. the children were mildly provoked to arouse aggression. a) Outline how the children were subjected to mild arousal of aggression. (2) b) Why was this necessary? (2)4. Bandura et al. concluded that aggression may be learned through imitations. Give two differences between the way the children witnessed the violence in the experiment and the way they children witness violence in everyday life. (4)5. a) Describe one of the predictions made at the beginning of the study by Bandura et al. (2) b) To what extent do the results support this conclusion? (2)6. a) The children in the study were matched in terms of aggression. Describe how this was done. (2) b) Explain why it was necessary to match the children on aggression. (2)SECTION B QUESTIONSa) Describe the aims of the study by Bandura et al. (2)b) Describe the data collected in the study by Bandura et al. and one strength of collecting this kindof data. (2)c) Describe how the children’s behaviour was observed in the study by Bandura et al. (6)d) Explain how the reliability of these measurements could be assessed. (8)e) Outline the conclusions of the study by Bandura et al. (6)f) Suggest two changes to the study by Bandura et al. and outline how these changes might affect theresults. (8) Page 28
  • 29. AS Psychology Developmental ApproachIn the Core Studies exam, you could be asked a question on the Developmental ApproachinPsychology. The question could look something like this:- a) Outline one assumption of the developmental approach in psychology. (2) b) Describe how the developmental approach could explain................. (4) c) Describeone similarityand one difference between any two developmental studies.(6) d) Discussstrengths and weaknesses of the developmental approach using any examples from developmental approach studies. (12)b)Describe how the developmental approach explains aggression. (4)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________b)Describe how the developmental approach explains the development of children’sthinking. (4)_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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    Jul 23, 2017
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